Ecuadorian Studies, December 2002, No. 2
Hist. Dev.
Ecuadorian Studies

Ecuadorian Studies / Estudios ecuatorianos No. 2 (Dec. 2002)



Michael T. Hamerly and Miguel Díaz Cueva


This work lists every bibliography and related study of ecuatoriana in the humanities, the social sciences, and the natural sciences published through Dec. 2001, including those that were/are available online, for which the authors were able to obtain or to establish a satisfactory description as of July 2002 (altogether 316 items). (1) Except in the case of a few exceptionally elusive items, the descriptions, annotations, and evaluations are based on examination of the actual materials. Those items that neither author has been able to see, are identified in the text and notes.

Bibliography of Ecuadorian Bibliographies revises, augments, and updates the first edition of this work, published by Michael T. Hamerly in 2001 (entry 148), which described and discussed 252 items, (2) and the "Bibliographies" or first section of Hamerly's Historical Bibliography of Ecuador (entry 150), the publication cutoff date for which was 1995. Since 1995 at least 30 bibliographies have appeared, and, not surprisingly, the authors have encountered several additional pre-1996 bibliographies. In this regard, it should be noted that when Hamerly compiled Historical Bibliography of Ecuador, he did not have access to OCLC or RLIN, among other resources. Understandably, therefore, some materials eluded him as a consequence of which the first section of Historical Bibliography of Ecuador listed only 200 items. (3)

The preliminary essay ("Ecuadorian Bibliography: Historical Development and Present State") of this version of Bibliografía de bibliografías ecuatorianas examines the historical development of bibliography and related developments in and on Ecuador in considerably more detail than the English or first edition. Unfortunately, not all that much may be said about the history of printing or of the book in Ecuador after its separation from Colombia in 1830 because almost everything remains to be found out about both.

This work is limited to bibliographies per se. Therefore catalogs of manuscripts and guides to research collections do not appear here within. Historiographic and related studies, including review articles, are also excluded for the most part. To wit, Gerhard Drekonja's 1978 "Ecuador: ensayo bibliográfico" is excluded because it is primarily an historiographic, not a bibliographic, essay, (4) but Jorge Núñez Sánchez's 1994 La historiografía ecuatoriana contemporánea (entry 230) is included because it features a substantial bibliographic component. Librarians and scholars seeking guides to and studies of archives, libraries, museums, and private collections in Ecuador and repositories located elsewhere in the world that have materials on Ecuador and/or historiographic and related studies should consult the "Research Aids" and "Historiographic and Related Studies" sections of Hamerly's Historical Bibliography of Ecuador (entry 150).

Although we have endeavored to be comprehensive, no doubt one or more relevant bibliographies have eluded us. But we take consolation in what Bernard Lavalle, a fellow historian, ecuatorianista, and bibliographer has to say in this regard:

    Por supuesto, la ambición de todo trabajo de este tipo es la de ser lo más completo posible. Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, no dejó de acompañarnos el convencimiento íntimo de que la meta propuesta, la exhaustividad, no era sino ilusoria y que al final no faltarán algunos trabajos que, desgraciadamente, hayan escapado de nuestra vigilancia. (5)

Works cited in footnotes and listed under "Bibliografías y obras relacionadas" are described in their respective language(s) of publication. The citation system is that employed in the humanities as spelled out in chapter 15, "Documentation 1: Notes and Bibliographies," of The Chicago Manual of Style, (6) and by David William Foster, Daniel Altamiranda, and Carmen de Urioste in The Writer's Reference Guide to Spanish. (7) Among other considerations, this means that parentheses employed by author or publisher within titles have been retained. Three-em dashes for repeated names, however, have not been used because it is the authors's firm belief that each bibliographic entry should stand on its own. This is not a matter of whimsey but of practicality. It is much easier to consult bibliographies in which entries are independent of one another. (8) Although not required, multiple publishers are given. The number of pages or leaves for books and contributions in anthologies is also specified.

Dates have been added to personal names whenever ascertainable because such information is not only important but often difficult to obtain. When an author lives not only determines the resources and tools available to him/her but also has much to do with the questions he/she asks and tries to answer. Furthermore, such information is not always easy to come by. Also insofar as names are concerned, Ecuadorian usage has been respected.

Unless otherwise noted the country of publication is Ecuador. Abbreviations of months are those specified in the English and Spanish versions of Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. (9)

This is a main entry bibliography. This means that the entries are in alphabetical order by author (including responsible corporate body) when there is only one author, by first author named if there are two or three authors, and by title if there are more than four authors--to oversimplify the rules of main entry. Access to secondary authors, multiple authors, compilers, contributors, and editors, however, is provided through the "Added Author Index." The entries are enumerated. They are not subdivided by subjects because this bibliography is country driven rather than discipline oriented. Thematic access, however, is available through the "Subject Index." A "Chronological Index" has been added to this edition. The latter is not an index of the years which the bibliographies cover but of the years in which the bibliographies themselves were published. The numbers in the indices refer to the entries, not to the pages on which they appear.

Modified Library of Congress subject headings have been used. Ecuador has not been included in thematic headings or added to specific place names. By itself Ecuador refers to general works (i.e, bibliographies that cover multiple aspects of Ecuadorian Studies). The form subheading of bibliography has been dropped. Chronological subdivisions more in keeping with the nuances of Ecuadorian history have been adopted. Nor have we hesitated to use natural language when it seemed to us more appropriate than the stilted terminology sometimes employed by the Library of Congress.

A few words as to the bricks and mortar that went into the fabrication of this bibliography and as to the authors's working papers are in order. In the case of Hamerly (1940-), this work is the byproduct of forty plus years of research in archives, bookstores, libraries, museums, and private collections in North America, South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. More than seven of those years were spent in Ecuador itself. Hamerly holds a Ph.D. in history and a M. of Libr. and has been a university professor, translator, historical researcher, editor, bibliographer, and rare book librarian. A contributing editor to the "History, Spanish South America, General" and "History, Spanish South America, Colonial Period" sections of the Handbook of Latin American Studies since 1970, (10) Hamerly is also the founding editor of Ecuadorian Studies / Estudios ecuatorianos (2001-), an online journal. (11) How well he knows the sources and their contents, however, is for others to say.

Over the years Hamerly has accumulated a substantial number of personal and professional debts, far too many to discharge here. To each and every individual and institution that has assisted him in one way or another, he remains appreciative and grateful.

Three exceptionally important beings, however, must be singled out. Above all others, Carmen Victoria Flores de Hamerly, a very special person in her own right, who has stood by her man and her country--siendo ecuatorianísima--through it all and who continues to give more than meaning to their lives. Their son Michael Charles Hamerly Flores, of whom they are more than justifiably proud. And Dr. Miguel Díaz Cueva, who time and time again over the past thirty-four years has put himself, his unique knowledge of Ecuadorian authors, and his magnificent collection of ecuatoriana at Hamerly's disposal unconditionally and unhesitatingly. Without his input, this bibliography would be far less accurate and far less complete. It is right and fitting, therefore, that his name should appear as coauthor.

Miguel Díaz Cueva's collaboration is based on seven decades of collecting imprints of and on his country and on more than half a century of bibliographic experience. Born in Cuenca in 1919, Díaz Cueva took his doctorate in law from the Universidad de Cuenca in 1949. He was a functionary of the Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas, between 1946 and 1970, and the founding director of the Archivo Nacional de Historia, Sección del Azuay (1964). But what is most important from our point of view is his development of what is presently the second greatest private collection of ecuatoriana in the country and a lifelong interest in bibliography. (12) Dr. Díaz Cueva began to acquire books in 1932 (at the age of 13), and is the author of several major historical bibliographies, the most significant of which are those on Vicente Solano (entries 61 and 103) and Honorato Vázquez (entry 104 ). (13)

Michael T. Hamerly
John Carter Brown Library
Brown University
Rhode Island and Providence Plantation
August 2002

Miguel Díaz Cueva
Biblioteca Miguel Díaz Cueva
Santa Ana de los Ríos de Cuenca
República del Ecuador
Julio 2002


1.  363 items including the additional bibliographies and related materials cited in the text and in notes.

2.  It also corrects a number of infelicitous errors in Bibliography of Ecuadorian Bibliographies , for which Hamerly begs the reader's indulgence.

3.  Nonetheless, it cannot be overemphasized that not even the most comprehensive online search will yield all relevant materials.

4.  In Ecuador hoy, edición de Gerhard Drekonja ... [et al.], 1ª ed. (Bogotá: Siglo Veintiuno, 1978), 281-313.

5.  Bibliografía francesa sobre el Ecuador (1968-1993) (entry 195), 4.

6.  14th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).

7.  1st ed. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999). The Writer's Reference Guide to Spanishprovides comprehensive information on how Spanish languages works may be prepared or edited for publication in accordance with The Chicago Manual of Style and The MLA Style Manual, taking into account differences in language usage and bibliographic formats.

8.  What will probably turn out to be the most comprehensive bibliography of ecuatoriana ever compiled, the eight vol. to date Diccionario bibliográfico ecuatoriano (entry 46) is difficult to use because it employs three-em dashes for multiple entries under the same author, rendering it almost impossible to consult as a "dictionary." It also uses the author-date system of citation. To find a specific entry, therefore, one has to open a volume more or less at random and scan pages, sometimes many pages, backward or forward, to find the desired author and/or title(s).

9.  Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, prepared under the direction of the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR, 2nd ed., 1998 rev. (Chicago: American Library Association, 1998); Reglas de catalogación angloamericanas, preparadas por The [sic] American Library Association ... [et al.], editadas en español por Nelly Kopper y María Julia Vargas, revisadas por Carmen Rovira, 2a ed. (Washington, D.C.: Organización de Estados Americanos; San José, C.R.: Biblioteca, Documentación e Información, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1983).

10.  The Handbook of Latin American Studies is published by the University of Texas Press for the Hispanic Division of the Library of Congress. It is also available online at

11.  A publication of the Section on Ecuadorian Studies of the Latin American Studies Association, the online address of which is:

12.  The Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit" is the largest, but it is institutional, not personal.

13.  For more information regarding Díaz Cueva, see the entry in Rodolfo Pérez Pimentel, Diccionario biográfico del Ecuador, <22> vols. [to date] (Guayaquil: Editorial de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1987-<2002>), 14: 157-162.