Hist. Dev.
Ecuadorian Studies

Ecuadorian Studies / Estudios ecuatorianos No. 2 (Dec. 2002)



Michael T. Hamerly and Miguel Díaz Cueva



Heretofore the only attempts to establish some of the benchmarks in the development of bibliographical coverage of ecuatoriana have been: (1) Alfredo Chaves's considerably dated but still indispensable 1958 Fuentes principales de la bibliografía ecuatoriana (entry 79); (2) Alonso Altamirano Silva and Carmen Carrillo's 1978 "Bibliografía y bibliotecología en el Ecuador" (entry 7); and (3) Michael T. Hamerly's 2001 Bibliography of Ecuadorian Bibliographies or the first edition of this work (entry 148). Fortunately, bibliography is better developed and more robust in Ecuador than it was when Chaves initially surveyed the scene in the late 1950s, or when Altamirano and Carrillo partially updated Chaves twenty years later.

Chaves (1902-1963) was the founder and the first president of the Asociación Ecuatoriana de Bibliotecarios (1945-). Chaves was the first and until 1965, the only professionally trained librarian in the country. Altamirano (1936-) too was professionally trained and also president of the Asociación Ecuatoriana de Bibliotecarios for a time. More importantly, he was the driving force behind the Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central's Bibliografía ecuatoriana (entry 30) and its successor Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano y Bibliografía ecuatoriana (entries 16-18). (1) Together Bibliografía ecuatoriana and Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano y Bibliografía ecuatoriana constituted one of the two most important attempts to date to establish continuous bibliographic control of ecuatoriana. The other was that of the Cuenca branch of the Banco Central's Centro de Investigación y Cultura, beginning with its Ecuador, bibliografía analítica (entry 108).

Bibliography was slow to develop in Ecuador. Apparently only six bibliographies appeared in the nineteenth century, and a mere 13 during the first quarter of the twentieth. (2) It was not until the second quarter of the twentieth century that bibliographies began to appear in appreciable numbers (66 altogether between 1926 and 1950), and it was not until 1975 that the first, albeit only temporary, ongoing attempt to register new and recent publications began to be published, the Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central's Bibliografía ecuatoriana (entry 30). Unfortunately, none of the several attempts to date to achieve bibliographic control of national publications have lasted for more than a few years.

According to Chaves, and Altamirano and Carrillo, the first bibliography realized in the country was Juan de Velasco's Catálogo de algunos escritores antiguos y modernos del Perú y Quito(entry 306), which appeared in 1885, nearly a century after the author's death. Velasco (1727-1792), was a riobambeño, a Jesuit, and one of the expulsos of 1767. The Catálogo de algunos escritores was not a bibliography of ecuatoriana per se, however. Nominally a "catalog of ancient and modern writers of Peru and Quito," in reality it was an annotated list of early accounts of Spanish America, especially of Spanish South America.

It was also unreliable inasmuch as it suffers from descriptive errors. Velasco's second entry, for example, is the 1535 Seville imprint by Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés which Velasco refers to as Historia generalnatural de las Indias, and which Velasco maintained "se imprimió junta con la de Jerez, en un solo cuerpo." Not only was Velasco mistaken as to the title, he was wrong as to its contents. The Seville imprint was actually entitled Historia general delas [sic] Indias--a distinct work from Oviedo's earlier De la natural hystoria de las Indias (Toledo, 1526)--and it appeared on its own. The version that included Francisco de Xerez's Conquista del Perú did not appear until 1547, and it was printed in Salamanca, not in Seville. There was a Seville 1534 printing of Xerez's Uerdadera relacion de la conquista del Peru y prouincia del Cuzco llamada la nueua Castilla , however. Velasco also neglected to specify the printers and extent of the works of the 55 authors he "analyzed." In this regard, it should be noted that it had long since become customary for the bibliographically adept to include printer and collation statements. (3)

As to Velasco's bibliography having been the first "realizado en el Ecuador," Chaves, and Altamirano and Carrillo were mistaken. Chaves was unaware of the relationship of Velasco's Catálogo de algunos escritores to his previously, but also posthumously, published Historia del Reino de Quito en la América Meridional, and Altamirano and Carrillo limited themselves to repeating their predecesor's assertion. Velasco's Catálogo de algunos escritores does not appear in the first nominally complete version of his Historia del Reino de Quito as edited by Agustín Yeroví. (4) (Velasco's Historia del Reino de Quito consists of three parts, Historia natural, Historia antigua , and Historia moderna. The previously published French version corresponds only to the Historia antigua. (5)) The "Catálogo de algunos escritores" does appear, however, in the first truly complete and scholarly acceptable version of the Historia del Reino de Quito, entitled Padre Juan de Velasco, S.I., as transcribed and edited by Aurelio Espinosa Pólit, at the end of book four of the Historia natural. (6) It also appears in the same place in the only other scholarly acceptable version of the Historia del Reino de Quito , that of the Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. (7) The version of the Historia del Reino de Quito available to Chaves, however, was that from which Yeroví had expunged the "Catálogo de algunos escritores."

As published in both the Espinosa Pólit and the Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana versions, the text of the "Catálogo de algunos escritores" leaves no doubt that it was never intended to be a separate monograph, but that it constituted the bibliographic apparatus or what today would be called "references" and, therefore, was as an integral part of Velasco's Historia del Reino de Quito. What happened is that in deleting the "Catálogo de algunos escritores" from what was supposed to have been the first complete edition of the Jesuit expatriate's Historia del Reino de Quito, Yerovi prepared the ground for the emergence of a bibliographic ghost when the "Catálogo de algunos escritores" finally appeared in print as a disembodied separate 44 years later. (Yerovi also modified Velasco's prose in order to render it more intelligible to "modern" readers, thus doing scholars a double disservice.) Although nowadays a bibliographic oddity, the Catálogo de algunos escritores remains historiographically important because it specifies some of the authorities on whom Velasco relied and what he thought of them. (8)

Instead of Velasco's Catálogo de algunos escritores, it could be argued that the first Ecuadorian bibliography was Antonio de Alcedo y Bejarano's 1807 Bibliotheca americana (entry 4), which is generally reliable and descriptively acceptable for the most part. But there are difficulties with this contention too. Although born in Quito, Alcedo (1736-1812) was a Spaniard in every sense that mattered, and his subject was the Americas at large, not the colony of his birth. Furthermore, Alcedo's opus magnus was not published until many years after his death too, not until 1964-1965, to be specific. Nonetheless, his Bibliotheca americana constitutes a major source of bibliographic information on the New World, including the future Ecuador, during the colonial period. (9)

It could also be argued, if one wanted to stretch the definition of bibliography, that the first bibliographic work published in Ecuador was the 1858 Catálogo de libros pertenecientes a la testamentaría del Sr. Dr. Pio Bravo, que se venderán en remate público a mediados de julio. (10) Although not a bibliography per se, the 1858 Catálogo de libros does constitute an important source for the reconstruction of the history of libraries and private collections in the country.

Apparently, therefore, the earliest bibliography of ecuatoriana was Nicolás Anrique Reyes's 1891 Noticia de algunas publicaciones ecuatorianas anteriores a 1792 (entry 15). It was probably also the first register of Ecuadorian imprints of any period--"apparently" and "probably" because it is possible that an earlier bibliography of ecuatoriana might surface some day, for reasons that will become obvious shortly. (11) Appropriately, Anrique Reyes (d. 1904) was Chilean, a country that gave us several great bibliographers during the early national period, including not just José Toribio Medina (1852-1930) but also the Bolivian expatriate Gabriel René Moreno (1836-1908), the compiler of Biblioteca boliviana (1879) and Biblioteca peruana (1896), the latter of which continues to be of importance to ecuatorianistas as well as Peruvianists, given the substantial body of materials relating to the future Ecuador printed in Lima and elsewhere in Peru during the colonial, independence, and early national periods. (12)

Not yet enough is known to give a full account of bibliographic developments in Ecuador. But enough can be pieced together to establish some of the milestones in the rocky course of descriptive and enumerative bibliography and related developments in and on the country.

The first press in the then Audiencia of Quito was established by the Jesuits in Ambato in 1755. It was transferred to San Francisco de Quito in 1759. The first work and the first book, respectively, to have been printed in the country were: the Catalogus personarum et officorum Provinciae Quitensis Societatis Jesu (Ambato: Typis ejusdem Societatis, 1754); and the anonymous Pissima erga del genitricem devotio (Ambato: Typis Soc. Jesu, 1755). Guayaquil, the second most important city in the country, did not acquire a press of its own until 1821, not, that is to say, until after it had declared its independence from Spain. Cuenca, which was more populous than the port city during the colonial period and the more accomplished of the two as a cultural, ecclesiastical, and educational center, had to wait even longer, until 1828, by which time the whole of the future Ecuador had been liberated. Ambato, the home of the first press in the country, would not have a press of its own again until 1835.

The most comprehensive bibliography of early ecuatoriana is Alexandre A. M. Stols's 1956 Historia de la imprenta en el Ecuador de 1755 a 1830 (entry 288). Stols's Historia de la imprenta has been supplemented by the first (1956) and second (1982) editions of Abel Romeo Castillo's La imprenta de Guayaquil independiente (entries 71 and 72). N.B. Neither Stols nor Castillo are exhaustive registers of the pre-1830 imprints of Ambato, Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca. (13) For other early imprints of Cuenca see Juan Cordero Iñiguez and Bernarda Crespo Cordero's 1989 Bibliografía azuaya del siglo XIX(entry 91) and Alfonso Andrade Chiriboga's 1950 Hemeroteca azuaya (entry 13). Nonetheless, Stols's and Castillo's works are solid histories of the first presses in Ambato, Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca, and model accounts of much of their output.

Stols (1900-1973) was a Dutch scholar and a specialist in the early history of the press in Spanish America. Castillo (1904-1996) was a guayaquileño and a scion of the family that owned and edited the port city daily, El Telégrafo. Castillo was also the first Ecuadorian to earn a doctorate in history. (14)

The history of the press in Ecuador after its separation from Bolívar's chimeric Gran Colombia remains to be written for the most part. Although Camilo Destruge's Historia de la prensa de Guayaquil (entries 100 and 101) includes considerable data on printers and publishers, his study is not a history of printing but of newspapers in the port city. The first and only work to date to attempt country wide, diachronic coverage of printing events and developments after 1830 is Carlos Enrique Sánchez's 1935 La imprenta en el Ecuador (entry 280). The importance of Sánchez's account cannot be overemphasized. It is rich in insider information, especially on composition, press work, and binding in Quito during the late nineteenth century and the first third of the twentieth. Sánchez was a linotypist, one of the first in the country, and an employee of the Imprenta Nacional. Sánchez's La imprenta en el Ecuador is somewhat sketchy when it comes to the rest of the country, however, and it has yet to be supplemented, let alone supplanted. (15)

The bibliographic roster of 1831-1900 ecuatoriana is incomplete. (16) Cordero Iñiguez and Crespo Cordero's Bibliografía azuaya (entry 91) is the only attempt to register the publishing output of books and articles of any of the publishing centers for the entire, or, rather almost the entire nineteenth century, inasmuch as the Corderos ended coverage with 1899, instead of 1900. Their work appears to be virtually complete. The bibliographic landscape of the nineteenth century, however, is not as bleak as the penultimate remark implies. Destruge's Historia de la prensa de Guayaquil provides solid coverage of nineteenth- and early-twentieth century newspapers and periodicals of the port city. Leonardo J. Muñoz (1898-1987) affords some coverage of broadsides and other fliers published between 1790 and 1920 (see entry 223), and Germán Solano de la Sala Veintemilla's Indice de folletos lists some of the pamphlet literature of the 1800s relating to economic and social developments and events (entry 287), specifically for 1824 onward. In this regard, it should be noted that the latter includes a chronological index.

Carlos Manuel Larrea's classic Bibliografía científica del Ecuador (entries 180-182) and the Diccionario bibliográfico ecuatoriano (entry 46), both of which are discussed below, list many separates of the nineteenth century too. Furthermore, as will also be seen below, almost all, if not all, of the newspapers of the nineteenth century have been registered. Nonetheless, a country wide, chronologically complete bibliography of separates and/or serials of the 1800s has yet to be attempted. Moreover, the only attempt to establish registers of contemporary national publications during the nineteenth century appears to have been César Villavicencio's 1893-1895 Anuario de la prensa ecuatoriana for 1892-1894 (entry 308). (17)

Insofar as diachronic coverage of imprints is concerned, the twentieth century has fared somewhat better. Almost all of the publications of the 1900s have been registered in one bibliography of another. Nonetheless, it was not until 1938 that the next attempt to register coeval national publications on a more or less comprehensive basis appears to have been made. In 1938 the Inter-American Book Exchange in cooperation with the National Library of Ecuador produced A General Bibliography of Ecuadorian Publications for 1936-1937 , and the following year A General Bibliography of Ecuadorian Publications for 1938. (18) There was also an unrelated attempt to report new and recent books in the 1930s, by Antonio Montullo's through his column "Mirador bibliográfico" in the Grupo de América's América: revista mensual ilustrada, which he maintained for seven years (1934-1940). Montullo, however, limited himself to annotating works he considered to be of importance. (19)

Nearly two decades expired before the next register of national publications was forthcoming, "Bibliografía ecuatoriana" in the 1959 Revista de la Biblioteca Municipal de Quito. Unfortunately, the Revista de la Biblioteca Municipal de Quito was virtually stillborn; it died with its inaugural issue (entry 29). Eight more years elapsed before yet another attempt to achieve national bibliographic control was made, the Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana's 1967 Boletín bibliográfico ecuatoriano (entry 54). It survived slightly longer than its predecessor, appearing in a total of two issues. But in the mid 1970s, the situation improved dramatically.

Beginning in 1975, the Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central del Ecuador registered new and recent national publications (including articles and contributions to anthologies), more or less comprehensively, for a five year period (1975-1979), initially through its Bibliografía ecuatoriana = Ecuadorian bibliography= Bibliographie del'Equateur [sic] = Ecuadorianisch Bibliographie (entry 30) and subsequently through its Anuario bibliográfico ecuatorianoyBibliografía ecuatoriana (entries 16-18). The first issue of Bibliografía ecuatoriana was that of año 1, no. 1 (ene./feb. 1975). Nominally a bimonthly, Bibliografía ecuatoriana continued to appear as a separate through año 1, no. 5 (sept./oct. 1975). No. 6 appeared as an integral part of the first issue of the Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central del Ecuador's bibliographic annual, entitled Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano 1975 y Bibliografía ecuatoriana no. 6 (entry 16). No. 7 (1976) marked the last appearance of Bibliografía ecuatoriana, now nominally a semiannual, as a separate. Nos. 8-9 appeared as integral parts of the second bibliographic annual, Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano 1976-1977 y Bibliografía ecuatoriana nos. 8-9 (entry 17). Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano 1976-1977 also cumulated no. 7 of Bibliografía ecuatoriana. No. 10 of Bibliografía ecuatoriana appeared as an integral part of the third bibliographic annual of the Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano 1978-1979 y Bibliografía ecuatoriana no. 10 (entry 18). There were no further issues of either.

N.B. Bibliografía ecuatoriana and Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano y Bibliografía ecuatorianalist only those new and recent publications acquired by the Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central del Ecuador. They owned their existence to the dynamic director of the Library, Alfonso Altamirano, a professionally trained librarian. It is not known which came first, the cessation of publication of Bibliografía ecuatoriana and its successor Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano y Bibliografía ecuatoriana or Altamirano's resignation from his position and departure from the country. What is known is that the Universidad Central had its budget drastically slashed in the late 1970s. Whether Altamirano might have been able to have revived Bibliografía ecuatorianaand/or the Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano y Bibliografía ecuatoriana had he remained at the helm of the Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central del Ecuador is moot.

Fortunately, the Cuenca branch of the Banco Central del Ecuador's Centro de Investigación y Cultura picked up the slack. See its Ecuador,bibliografíaanalítica (entry 108), which appeared every four months and covered the years 1979-1982. The Cuenca Centro de Investigación y Cultura followed its Ecuador,bibliografíaanalítica with its own Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano, beginning in 1984 for 1982 and continuing through 1991 for 1987 (entry 19). The Cuenca Centro de Investigación y Cultura also issued a remarkable Bibliografía retrospectiva ecuatoriana e índice acumulativo for 1978-1985 (entry 33). Bibliografía retrospectiva ecuatoriana even addressed the issue of name authority control, not just for persons but also for entities. The bibliographic efforts of the Cuenca Centro de Investigación y Cultura were discontinued in the early 1990s because of the adverse economic circumstances of that decade and concurrent changes in the political culture of the Banco Central.

The national bibliographic scene was not entirely bleak following the demise of the Quito and Cuenca Anuarios bibliográficos ecuatorianos. Even before the cessation of the Cuenca Centro de Investigación y Cultura's Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano, the bookseller Edgar Freire Rubio, a remarkable autodidact, had begun to provide current coverage through his monthly list of new and recent publications in various dailies of the capital city. Until recently Freire Rubio was the manager of the Librería Cima in Quito, one of the most important outlets for the acquisition of national publications in the country. He is now the manager of the Librería Española.

Freire Rubio periodically reissued his lists and related writings in compilations. His El libro nacional (entry 133) and Desde el mostrador del librero (entry 132)--three volumes of the latter of which had appeared as of July 2002--provide month-by-month listings of national books and periodicals for Jan. 1986 through Dec. 1995. Unfortunately, Freire's monthly newspaper column and periodic compilations consisted simply of announcements of new and recent publications in the humanities, social sciences, and sciences; that is to say, they lack collation statements and more importantly content specific indicators. Nonetheless, his monthly lists and periodic compilations were preferable to the alternative that now prevails, a quasi bibliographic void. (20)

Freire Rubio continues to compile periodic lists of new and recent publications, but, unfortunately, none of the capitaline newspapers permit him to publish them any longer, preferring to give the space over to "more important matters" and advertisements. Similarly he has accumulated enough material to publish two or three additional volumes of Desde el mostrador del librero , but has been unable to find a publisher and cannot himself afford the printing, binding, and distribution costs. (21)

Essential to the compilation of current and retrospective bibliographies is the formation of libraries and collections. (22) During the colonial period almost the only libraries were those of the religious orders. Especially important were those of the Dominicans and the Jesuits. The Dominican Universidad de Santo Tomas became the Universidad de Quito in 1826, and its library, at least in part, what is now the Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central del Ecuador. (23) Some of the Jesuits's holdings, however, became part of what is now the Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador "Eugenio Espejo," in 1792, and yet others also part of the eventual Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central. The surviving colonial period holdings of the Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador "Eugenio Espejo" are described in entry 50, and those of the Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central in entries 64, 111, and 112. (24)

Notwithstanding the neglect of the Biblioteca Nacional by the majority of national administrations, it probably had substantial holdings of nineteenth-century materials at one time or another, but judging by its 1977 catalog of national authors (entry 49), few have survived. Its twentieth-century holdings, however, are more or less substantial albeit somewhat spotty. Regarding the neglect of the National Library, a 1986 statement by Plutarco Naranjo (1921-), a medical doctor and one of the bibliographers listed below, is apropos: "Ni Quito ni toda la nación ecuatoriana cuenta con una sola biblioteca digna de la época. Ninguna dispone de un presupuesto apropiado para la adquisición de nuevos libros. Ninguna cuenta con partidas suficientes para mantener una buena hemeroteca. Del siglo XVIII hasta finales del siglo XX hemos recorrido un trágico camino de descenso." (25)

The Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central has never made the totality of its holdings known. The Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central, nonetheless, played a significant role on the national bibliographic scene in the second half of the 1970s, as already noted. (26)Two of the Universidad Central's other libraries, however, the Biblioteca de la Facultad de Derecho and the Biblioteca del Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, did produce printed catalogs of their holdings, in 1957 and 1955, respectively (see entries 40 and 44).

The earliest printed library catalog as well as the only catalog of a pre-twentieth-century library to have been published was that of the Biblioteca Pública del Azuay, each volume of which was individually entitled: I, Ciencias eclesiásticas (Cuenca: Impr. la Universidad, 1890); II, Jurisprudencia (1890); III, Ciencias políticas y económicas (1890); IV, Historia (1890); V, Literatura (1891); VI, Ciencias (1891); VII, Medicina (1891); VIII, Artes y oficios (1891); IX, Apéndice (1892). For additional information see entry 51. (27) The Biblioteca Pública del Azuay, sometimes referred to as Biblioteca Pública de Cuenca, was also the library of the Universidad del Azuay.

The most recent printed library catalog is the hopefully only temporarily discontinued Diccionario bibliográfico ecuatoriano of the Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit" (entry 46). It is also the most important retrospective bibliography ever likely to be published in and on Ecuador inasmuch as the Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit" houses the most extensive collection of ecuatoriana anywhere in the world. The first eight vols. of the Diccionario bibliográfico ecuatoriano feature 48,156 entries, remarkably few of which are redundant. The Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit" also began to publish a periodical in 1998, Primicias: revista de la Fundación Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit," which in part, at least, is supposed to be or to have been devoted to bibliography. (28)

Several nineteenth-century scholars undoubtedly amassed sizeable working collections of their own. Obvious candidates are the archbishop-historian Federico González Suárez, and the multifaceted Pablo Herrera, Juan León Mera, and Pedro Moncayo. Although González Suárez (1844-1917) is better known as a historian than a bibliographer, he was responsible for the second study of early ecuatoriana, the 1892 "Bibliografía ecuatoriana: la imprenta en el Ecuador durante el tiempo de la colonia" (entry 139). Herrera (1820-1896), Mera (1832-1894), and Moncayo (1807-1888) were pioneering historians and critics of national letters. (29)

From the point of view of bibliographic developments, however, the twentieth-century collectors Carlos A. Rolando (1881-1969), Carlos Manuel Larrea (1887-1983), Aurelio Espinosa Pólit (1894-1961), Nicolás Espinosa Cordero (b. 1902), Miguel Angel Jaramillo (1874-1953), and Miguel Díaz Cueva (1919-) are much more important. The guayaquileño Rolando developed the Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales "Carlos A. Rolando," which he donated to the Municipality of Guayaquil in 1933. The Rolando collection has been housed in the Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil ever since and its integrity respected. Rolando published two catalogs of his collection, both of which are major registers of ecuatoriana: the 1913 Catálogo de la bibliografía nacional: (Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales de Carlos A. Rolando) (entry 259), and the 1947 Catálogo decimal de la Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales (entry 260).

Rolando's prize winning 11,000 item "Bibliografía ecuatoriana," compiled in the 1920s would have been the first comprehensive retrospective bibliography of ecuatoriana, but it was never published. Instead that distinction fell to Carlos Manuel Larrea's 1948-1953 Bibliografía científica del Ecuador (entry 180). Bibliografía científica del Ecuadorwas based on Larrea's own extensive holdings and many years of research abroad. A quiteño, Larrea published a second, at the time more extensive, edition of his bibliography in 1952 in Spain (entry 181) even before the first had appeared in its entirety in Ecuador, and began to publish a third, considerably enlarged edition in 1968 (entry 182). Upon its completion, however, the first edition of the Bibliografía científica became more extensive than the second inasmuch as vol. 5 of the first edition added 1,077 entries, bringing the total to 9,800, whereas the second edition registered 500 fewer (9,300 items). Also the updated first edition advanced coverage through 1950, whereas the second stopped with 1949 publications.

At the same time, the three editions of Larrea's Bibliografía científica constitute quasi-catalogs of an exceptionally important collection of ecuatoriana. Posthumously acquired by the Banco Central del Ecuador, Larrea's collection is now housed in the Banco Central's Centro de Investigación y Cultura in Quito. Rolando and Larrea also published a number of specialized bibliographies (see entries 254-258, 261-269, and 179, 183-189, respectively).

Aurelio Espinosa Pólit was responsible for the establishment of the magnificent collection of ecuatoriana that now bears his name. In part it was based on holdings of his Jesuit predecessors. (30) As a scholar, however, Espinosa Pólit was much more of a classicist and an editor than a bibliographer. See, nonetheless, his bibliography of his maternal uncle Monseigneur Manuel María Pólit Laso (entry 118).

The authors have yet to ascertain the postmortem disposition of the Nicolás Espinosa Cordero collection. It is known, however, that Espinosa Cordero sold the majority of his holdings in life. (31) His heirs probably disposed of the rest. Espinosa Cordero's personal collection may have been remarkable. Some idea of its holdings may be had through the 29 page Catálogo de las obras antiguas, raras y curiosas que se hallan en la Biblioteca de Nicolás Espinosa Cordero (entry 114). (32)

Espinosa Cordero has the distinction of having produced the first bibliography of works on the history of his country, the 1934 Bibliografía ecuatoriana: noticias de las obras literarias y científicas que forman el caudal bibliográfico de la Real Audiencia de Quito, hoy República del Ecuador, con breves datos biográficos de sus autores, 1534-1809 (entry 113). This work remains indispensable to students of the colonial period inasmuch as Espinosa Cordero is the only scholar as of the early 2000s, to have attempted to describe and analyze imprints of the colonial period relating to the future Ecuador regardless of where they were published. Of course, he did not succeed as fully or as well as would have been optimum, but his yet to be surpassed Bibliografía ecuatoriana was a well done and substantial piece of work by any standard. (33)

Miguel Angel Jaramillo's collection of national publications was acquired in life by the Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, where it has been maintained to this day. Jaramillo prepared four catalogs thereof, of which only two were published: the 1932 Indice bibliográfico de la Biblioteca "Jaramillo" de Escritos Nacionales (entry 175); and the posthumous 1953 Indice bibliográfico de las revistas de la Biblioteca "Jaramillo" de Escritos Nacionales (entry 176). Parenthetically, given the relative isolation of Cuenca during the first half of the twentieth century and the virtual none existence of bibliographic control and standards in the country, it is all the more remarkable and very much to their credit that Espinosa Cordero and Jaramillo managed to develop such substantial holdings and to produce such major, timeless, well done bibliographies.

Miguel Díaz Cueva's private collection is exceptionally important because he has been making every effort to collect national publications, including government documents and serials, systematically as well as comprehensively. His serial holdings as well as his monographs, including many from the late colonial, independence, and early national periods, are extraordinarily extensive. He has not been collecting as systematically of late, however, because of health problems and heavy medical expenses. As of July 2002, Díaz Cueva (1919-) estimated that he held between 20 and 25,000 volumes and nearly as many titles. Hopefully one of the options for the future maintenance of his collection that he has been exploring will be realized.

Although Díaz Cueva has turned to biographical studies in recent years, (34) initially he made his mark as a bibliographer. His 1955 Bibliografía de Honorato Vázquez (entry 104) and 1965 Bibliografía de fray Vicente Solano (entry 103) are models of historical bibliography. (35)

No matter how well developed bibliographic control of books and articles may be, control of serials usually lags behind and tends to be less than complete, regardless of country. As of July 2002, the only bibliographies and related studies of Ecuadorian serials, except for newspapers, were: (1) César Villavicencio's 1893-1895 Anuario de la prensa ecuatoriana for 1892-1894 (entry 308); (2) Miguel Angel Jaramillo's posthumously published 1953 Indice bibliográfico de las revistas de la Biblioteca "Jaramillo" (entry 176); (3) Rosa Quintero Mesa's 1973 Ecuador, vol. 8 of her "Latin American Serial Documents" (entry 217); and (4) Edwing Guerrero Blum's 2001 Sociedades ecuatorianas de escritores y artistas (entry 143). (36)

Although Villavicencio's Anuario registers some monographs, it is mostly given over to periodicals and newspapers. Jaramillo's bibliography of periodicals is an exemplary piece of work; it is an issue by issue account. Mesa's Ecuador is an invaluable guide to government sponsored as well as official serials of the nineteenth and the first three fourths of the twentieth centuries. It cannot be overemphasized that Mesa registered many virtually unknown and barely known periodicals. Guerrero Blum's history of literary and artistic societies in the country is rich in bibliographic information. In the case of most of the corporate entities in question, Sociedades ecuatorianas de escritores y artistas includes a complete account of their revistas and other publications, data that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

The roster of newspapers is virtually complete for the late-eighteenth, the nineteenth, and the early-twentieth centuries, beginning with the first newspaper published in the country, the 1792 Primicias de la cultura de Quito. For the country at large see Alejandro Ojeda V.'s dated, not altogether reliable, but exceptionally replete 1941 chronological checklist "Estadística de la prensa nacional ..." (entry 231), and Rolando's bibliographically much more reliable and acceptable, but regrettably never completed 1947-1955 Crónica del periodismo ... (entries 263 and 264). Rolando advanced only as far as 1869. For the newspapers of Guayaquil, see Castillo's several studies, especially entries 72-75, and Destruge's superb 1924-1925 Historia de la prensa de Guayaquil (entries 100 and 101). Also of considerable importance, especially for nineteenth and early-twentieth-century newspapers are: (1) Andrade Chiriboga's previously mentioned 1950 Hemeroteca azuaya (entry 13); (2) Luis F. Madera's 1927 Periódicos ibarreños (entry 206); and (3) Máximo A. Rodríguez's 1948 El periodismo lojano (entry 253). N.B. Andrade Chiriboga's Hemeroteca azuaya covers only the nineteenth century. Andrade Chiriboga (1881-1954) had planned to add a volume on twentieth-century newspapers of his native Cuenca, but died before he could complete the project.

The history of newspapers is more or less well known too. Guayaquileños have been especially active in this regard, almost from the beginning of bibliographic and "scientific" historical studies in the country. In addition to Destruge, Rolando, and Castillo, see Juan B. Cerriola's pioneering 1909 Compendio de la historia del periodismo en el Ecuador, (37) and José Antonio Gómez Iturralde's 1998 Los periódicos guayaquileños en la historia, 1821-1997. (38)

Insofar as Ecuadorian studies per se are concerned, there are no current bibliographies. The only true retrospective bibliographies are the first and second editions of Larrea's Bibliografía científica (entries 180 and 181) and Hamerly's Historical Bibliography of Ecuador (entry 150).

The traditional disciplines of history and literature, law and medicine, on the other hand, have been well served. Several major bibliographies exist for history. The earliest bibliography of works on the history of Ecuador, albeit only of the colonial period, was Espinosa Cordero's classic 1934 Bibliografía ecuatoriana (entry 113). The 1948-1953 and 1952 editions of Larrea's Bibliografía científica (entries 180 and 181) are, of course, especially comprehensive when it comes to historical materials. Until recently, the most complete bibliography of materials on the history of Ecuador, was Robert E. Norris's 1978 Guía bibliográfica para el estudio de la historia ecuatoriana (entry 229).

Norris claimed to have superseded Larrea, but the descriptively incomplete entries in Larrea's Bibliografía científica tend to be more reliable than Norris's descriptively more acceptable entries. The substantial bibliographic component (pp. 57-132) of Jorge Núñez Sánchez's 1994 La historiografía ecuatoriana contemporánea (1970-1994 ) (entry 230) supplements and to an appreciable extent updates Larrea and Norris. Hamerly's Historical Bibliography of Ecuadorprovides the most recent and comprehensive coverage.

Larrea and Espinosa Cordero were autodidacts. As bibliographers it could not have been otherwise inasmuch as neither descriptive nor enumerative bibliography were taught in Ecuador and are still not being taught. Núñez Sánchez (1947-) is a professionally trained historian as are also Norris (1939-) and Hamerly (1940-). Núñez Sánchez holds a doctorate in geography and history from the Universidad de Huelva in Spain.

Three very solid general bibliographies of belles-lettres, each increasingly more complete and "up-to-date" than its predecessor(s), have appeared over the course of the past 68 years. But Carlos A. Rolando's 1944 bibliography (entry 255), and Thomas L. Welch and René L. Gutiérrez's 1989 bibliography (entry 313) tend to complement rather than supersede Guillermo Rivera's pioneering 1934 bibliography (entry 250) and one another. Several solid specialized bibliographies such as Michael H. Handelsman's 1981 El modernismo en las revistas literarias (entry 152), Francisco Delgado Santos's 1984 historical survey and bibliography of children's literature (entry 99), and Hubert Pöppel's 1999 bibliography and anthology of avant-garde authors (entry 243) also exist.

The legal literature of the country has been ably served by Juan Larrea Holguín who has periodically reissued his Bibliografía jurídica del Ecuador, beginning in 1969, each edition of which has been more comprehensive than the previous (entries 190-193). Larrea Holguín (1927-) is the son of the late Carlos Manuel Larrea, professionally trained in civil and canon law, and the current archbishop of Guayaquil. Furthermore, Larrea Holguín has given us the most comprehensive index to date of Ecuadorian legislation. (39) Also significant are Miguel Díaz Cueva's magisterial 1979 survey of corporate law materials (entry 105) and Graciela Egas de Venegas's 1999 bibliography of Supreme Court decisions and studies (entry 109).

The history of medicine has been well cultivated in Ecuador. It is not surprising therefore that the bibliography of medicine is correspondingly substantial. There are five major bibliographies, all of which were compiled by well qualified individuals, the first of which was Carlos A. Rolando's pioneering 1953 Bibliografía médica ecuatoriana (entry 258), and the second Mauro Madero Moreira and Francisco Parra Gil's indispensable 1971 Indice de la bibliografía médica ecuatoriana (entry 207). Although the other three bibliographies are more recent, they supplement but do not wholly update Madero Moreira and Parra Gil's vade mecum: (3) Rodrigo Fierro Benítez, Jaime Breilh, and Eduardo Estrella's 1995 Catálogo del libro ecuatoriano de medicina (entry 126); (4) Rodrigo Fierro Benítez, Magdalena de Carrera, and Jorge Revelo Rosero's 1995 Bibliografía científica médica ecuatoriana publicada en el exterior (entry 128); and (5) Rolando Costa, Eduardo Estrella, and Fernando Cabieses's 1998 Bibliografía andina de medicinal tradicional (entry 93). (40) Also important is Estrella's brief but exceptionally informative 1988 Principales fuentes de la bibliografía médica ecuatoriana (entry 119). (41)

Rolando was a pharmacist turned bibliophile and bibliographer, whereas Madero Moreira (d. 1973) and Parra Gil were physicians who cultivated the history of medicine in their spare time and retirement. As scholars, however, they were anything but amateurs. (42) Estrella (1941-1996), also a physician, abandoned medicine for history in an exceptionally promising but truncated career as a man of letters. (43) Fierro Benítez (1930-) is the founding director of the Centro Nacional de Documentos Científicos Ecuatorianos (1972-).

The Centro Nacional de Documentos Científicos Ecuatorianos, housed in the new building of the Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión" in Quito, is one of the most important repositories of scientific publications in the country. In addition to the Bibliografía científica médica ecuatoriana publicada en el exterior, Fierro Benítez together with Jorge Revelo Rosero and Flor María Hidalgo produced the 1997 Bibliografía científica ecuatoriana sobre las Islas Galápagos (entry 127). Hopefully the series in which both appeared, "Colección Bibliografía científica ecuatoriana"--as nos. 1 and 2, respectively--will flourish.

The social sciences have also been well served bibliographically, especially the older disciplines of anthropology and archaeology, beginning with Marshall Howard Saville's 1907 "Bibliography of the Anthropology of Ecuador" in his The Antiquities of Manabi, Ecuador (entry 283) and continuing with Paul Rivet's 1922 "Index bibliographique de l'ethnographie ancienne de l'Equateur" (entry 251). The first separately conceived, written, and published bibliography of Ecuadorian "antiquities," however, was Max Uhle's 1926 "Bibliografía sobre etnología y arqueología del Ecuador" (entry 229), which he began to update almost immediately (entry 290), and which he reissued in a substantially enlarged edition three years later (entry 291). It should also be noted that Saville's, Rivet's, and Uhle's bibliographies focused primarily on the prehispanic period inasmuch as hardly any ethnographic research had yet been conducted in the country.

All three men knew the literature well, especially Uhle. Saville (1867-1935), a North American archaeologist, pioneered the systematic and scientific study of the "prehistory" of the central coast. (44) The Frenchman Rivet (1876-1958), an anthropologist as well as an archaeologist, was the first professional to undertake ethnographic research in Ecuador. (45) Uhle (1856-1944), a German scholar, was himself a major contributor to archaeological studies of the country where he spent thirteen years (1919-1933) and engaged in considerable field work on the coast and in the highlands. (46)

As of July 2002, the most comprehensive bibliography of anthropological and archaeological materials continued to be the third edition of Carlos Manuel Larrea's Bibliografía científica(entry 182), to which the late Danish archaeologist and ecuatorianista Olaf Holm added periodic updates (see entries 158-163). (47) Other "supplements" to Larrea include: (1) Marc Becker's 1997 essay Indians in the Ecuadorian highlands (entry 26); (2) Karus Watiunk' (i.e., Juan Carlos Zanutto) and Juan Bottasso's 1978 Bibliografía general de la nación jívaro (entry 310); and (3) Jim and Linda Belote's ongoing web site on the Saraguros (entry 27). In this regard it should be noted that the Shuar, Achuar, and Saraguros appear to be the only ethnic groups for which specific bibliographies exist. Also important is Gertraud Itzstein and Heiko Prumers's 1981 Einführende Bibliographie zur Archäologie Ecuador = Bibliografía básica sobre la arqueología del Ecuador (entry 179). For folklore studies see the Brazilian scholar Paulo de Carvalho-Neto's contributions (entries 65-67).

Economics, geography, government and politics, and international relations, also appear to be more or less well covered. The most comprehensive and/or "recent" bibliographies on economic and social conditions are: (1) the 1977 edition of Lucía Alzamora's Ecuador, aspectos socio-económicos: bibliografía (entry 11); (2) Germán Solano de la Sala Veintemilla's 1991 Indice de folletos sobre temas económicos y sociales (entry 287); (3) the two volume 1973 Bibliografía social, económica y política del Ecuador (entry 35); and (4) in its own way Bernard Lavalle's 1995 Bibliografía francesa sobre el Ecuador (1968-1993) (entry 195).

Lavalle's bibliography is doubly important, given the substantial contributions of French scholars to Ecuadorian studies in recent decades. In this regard, see also Pierre Gondard's Repertorio bibliográfico de los trabajos realizados con la participación de ORSTOM: Ecuador 1962-1986(entry 138), and the more recent Contribución al conocimiento de una zona de encuentro entre los Andes ecuatorianos y peruanos, compiled by Anne Marie Hocquenghem and Zaida Lanning, with the collaboration of Pierre Gondard (entry 156).

In addition to the general bibliographies of economic and social conditions, there are several relatively recent bibliographies of studies of artisans (entries 90 and 241), small and medium enterprises (entry 94), agriculture (entries 107 ,146, 166, and 245), industries (entry 129), the informal sector or "underground economy" (entry 220), and rural life and agrarian reform (entry 226). (48) A major guide to theses in economics done at national universities was also forthcoming (entry 167).

At least six bibliographies and discussions of geographic and geologic studies in and of Ecuador exist, in addition to the relevant sections in the first and second editions of Larrea's Bibliografía científica and Hamerly's Historical Bibliography of Ecuador . The earliest was Luis Telmo Paz y Miño's 1927 Bibliografía geográfica ecuatoriana (entry 237), and the most recent (again as of July 2002) is the 1990 Guía bibliográfica de geografía física del Ecuador (entry 145), the compilers of which interpreted their charge liberally. The others are entries 14, 56, 84, 276, and 315. Several specialized bibliographies also exist. Especially important are: (1) Robert Gerardus Maria Hofstede's 1998 Geografía, ecología y forestación de la sierra alta ... (entry 157); (2) the two vol. 1993-1994 Areas protegidas del Ecuador (entry 21); (3) the 1994 Biodiversidad y areas protegidas (entry 52); and (4) Sergio Lasso and Cristina Borja's 1990 Bibliografía básica sobre los principales problemas ambientales del Ecuador (entry 194). There does not appear to be a separate bibliography of travel accounts of the country, but this genre has been well covered by Larrea in Bibliografía científica, Norris in Guía bibliográfica , and Hamerly in Historical Bibliography of Ecuador.

As for politics and government, there is now a bibliography of violence in Ecuador (see entry 1). One of the best bibliographies of the literature on political developments of the 1930s through the 1990s is the Oxford trained historian Enrique Ayala Mora's essay (entry 22). Also useful in this regard, especially for materials in English, is David Corkill's 1989 Ecuador (entry 92). For materials on political parties see James B. Johnson and Kenneth Janda's 1968 bibliography (entry 177) and Flavia Freidenberg and Manuel Alcántara Sáez's more recent online Guía bibliográfica(entry 130).

Although a separately published bibliography on the international relations of Ecuador does not appear to exist, there are several solid bibliographies of the Ecuador-Peru boundary dispute, all--somewhat embarrassingly from the Ecuadorian point of view--authored by Peruvians. By far the best of these is Juan Miguel Bákula's monumental 1992 Perú y Ecuador (entry 23).

As a discipline sociology does not appear to have made much headway in Ecuador. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are no general bibliographies of sociological studies. Two bibliographies of population materials exist, however, one of contemporary demographic studies by the French scholar Daniel Delaunay (entry 98), and the other of historical demographic and related materials by Hamerly (entry 149). There are also two bibliographies of women's studies--late in developing in Ecuador--the first by two national scholars, Rocío Rosero Jácome and Jackeline Contreras (entry 273), and the second of which is Gioconda Herrera's online Bibliografía sobre estudios de la mujer y el género en el Ecuador (entry 155). For rural studies see especially entries 205 and 294. Urban studies have also finally come into their own, resulting in the production of several significant guides to various aspects of this important field (see especially entries 220, 252, 274, and 275). There was even a periodical devoted to the bibliography of urban studies, Ciudad de papel (entry 81). Unfortunately, however, it seems to have succumbed within a few years of its birth (1994).

Government publications of Ecuador are inadequately known. The last general guide to separately published documents appeared more than half a century ago, John de Noia's 1947 Ecuador (entry 227). Rosa Quintero Mesa, however, provided us with a somewhat more recent (1973) list of serial documents (entry 217). Nonetheless, her work too is now considerably dated as is also the Junta Nacional de Planificación y Coordinación Económica's 1974 Inventario de estadísticas demográficas y socioeconómicas (entry 168). The Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, however, maintains a web site at http://www.inec.gov.ec/ that features a catalog of its currently available publications. (49) Also useful in this regard because it includes a checklist of government entities of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and their annual reports is Cecilia Durán C.'s "El Archivo-Biblioteca de la Función Legislativa: visión general del fondo." (50)

Returning to the humanities, bibliographic coverage of art has been less than optimum. Thus far there appears to have been only one general bibliography, Alfredo Chaves's considerably dated 1942 Primer registro bibliográfico de arts plásticas (entry 80). There is a more recent bibliography of folk or popular art, however, Juan Cordero Iñiguez's 1980 Bibliografía ecuatoriana de artesanías y arts populares (entry 90). Architecture has been slighted, notwithstanding the late twentieth-century spate of important publications on the historic as well as contemporary architecture of the country. Vol. 2 of Hamerly's Historical Bibliography of Ecuador, however, includes a section on art and architecture, albeit only through 1995 imprints.

The Summer Institute of Linguistics has published two editions of its Bibliografía del Instituto Lingüístico de Verano en el Ecuador (entries 212 and 213), but there does not appear to be a comprehensive bibliography of Ecuadorian language and linguistic materials. Certainly, there is nothing current. Manuel T. Orejuela's "Communication relative à la Bibliographie de la linguistique équatorienne ..." (entry 234) dates from 1934, and the third edition of Carlos Manuel Larrea's Bibliografía científica (entry 182) provides coverage of linguistic materials only through the mid 1960s. Fortunately, vol. 2 of Hamerly's Historical Bibliography of Ecuador also covers language and linguistic studies.

No separate bibliography of Ecuadorian music appears to exist, at least not of this writing, and only one of the theater (entry 203)--two if one counts the preliminary sample thereof (entry 202). Again some coverage of studies of Ecuadorian music is to be found in vol. 2 of Hamerly's Historical Bibliography of Ecuador. Discographies are lacking for the most part. But, at least, one now exists for pasillos. (51) Filmography appears to be in better shape, a comprehensive catalog of moving pictures produced through 1996 having appeared (entry 77). Philosophy and the history of ideas have also gone begging for Larreas, but see entries 3, 76, and once again, vol. 2 of Hamerly's Historical Bibliography of Ecuador (especially for history of ideas materials).

Regional bibliography is as uneven in coverage as regional development, but in reverse. There are three substantial guides to published materials on the Galápagos: (1) Carlos Manuel Larrea's pioneering 1960 El Archipiélago de Colón (Galápagos) (entry 179); (2) the exceptionally comprehensive 1996 Bibliografía de Galápagos, 1535-1995 = Galápagos Bibliographycompiled by Heidi M. Snell and others (entry 32), which lists 7,498 items; (52) and (3) the solid but not quite as comprehensive albeit better indexed Rodrigo Fierro Benítez, Jorge Revelo Rosero, and Flor María Hidalgo's 1997 Bibliografía científica ecuatoriana sobre las Islas Galápagos(entry 127). Interestingly enough but not surprisingly, the 1996 and 1997 bibliographies on the Galápagos were not only produced independently of one another but apparently without any knowledge by either team of compilers that a parallel work was in progress. Among other reasons this is because a clearing house of ideas, information, new and recent publications, and research in progress does not yet exist for Ecuadorian studies. (Hopefully the "yet" in the previous statement is not unduly optimistic.)

There are several major bibliographies of articles, books, and theses on the Oriente or the six eastern provinces of the country, (53) the most comprehensive of which appears to be Marco Restrepo's 1992 Amazonia ecuatoriana (entry 248). But bibliographies of the other major, much more developed and heavily populated regions (the north coast, the central-south coast, the north-central highlands, and the southern highlands) and their component provinces are lacking except for Azuay and Loja. There is, however, a bibliography of studies of economic conditions in the Province of Manabí (entry 242).

Also incredible as it may seem, there are hardly any city- or town-specific bibliographies. Again Cuenca, the capital of Azuay, constitutes the primary exception. Although appreciably fewer in numbers than guayaquileños or quiteños, cuencanos have produced a very substantial body of literature and scholarship. For Cuenca and Azuay see especially entries 13, 91, 116, 125, 174, and 224, and for the city as well as the province of Loja, Emmanuel Fauroux's impressive 1983 "Las fuentes impresas para el estudio histórico, político, económico y social de la Provincia de Loja" (entry 124), and the 1999 Contribución al conocimiento de una zona de encuentro entre los Andes ecuatorianos y peruanos (entry 156).

The paucity of regional and local bibliographies might not seem to be a major problem, but publications from the smaller cities and towns do not always reach the major cities and therefore go unnoticed for all practical purposes. Consequently, it is not always possible to obtain information on regional and local titles. Julio Estupiñán Tello, a well known Afro-Ecuadorian author, for example, is supposed to have published a Historia de Esmeraldas in 1958, and new editions in 1977 and 1983, but the authors have been unable to find a full description or to obtain a copy of any of the three. The first edition was apparently printed in Esmeraldas (the town), the second in Portoviejo, and the third in Santo Domingo de los Colorados.

At the same time it should be noted that not all of the publications of Guayaquil and Cuenca reach North America or Europe. Therefore it is just as difficult for ecuatorianistas to maintain themselves abreast of new and recent articles, books, and contributions to anthologies as it is for Ecuadorians.

There is no need, however, to be concerned about the relative lack of bibliographies of individual authors. The hopefully only temporarily discontinued Diccionario bibliográfico ecuatoriano of the Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit," had been providing author-by-author coverage (entry 46). Furthermore, Wilson C. Vega y Vega, heretofore the principal compiler of the Diccionario bibliográfico ecuatoriano, has been issuing a number of separate bibliographies of the works of lesser known as well as prominent intellectuals (see entries 295-305).

Nonetheless, separate bibliographies of articles, books, published sources, and theses on persons of Ecuador are noticeably lacking. Except for bibliographies of materials on a handful of "great men" such as Eloy Alfaro (entry 257) or Gabriel García Moreno (entry 184) and of some scholars (especially as compiled by Vega y Vega), they simply do not exist for the most part. (54) But Norris's Guía bibliográfica (entry 229) as well as Hamerly's Historical Bibliography of Ecuadorcompensate to some extent for the gaps in coverage of biographical materials.

Yet to be verified and described in full are: Edison Calvache's Bibliografía médica nacional, (55) and Alexandra Kennedy Troya's "Bibliografía sugerida para el estudio del arte colonial en Ecuador"; (56) and several periodicals: (1) the Boletín de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, the first issue of which appeared in March 1910; (2) the Biblioteca General of the Banco Central del Ecuador's Boletín bibliográfico; (57) (3) the Fundación Natura's Boletín bibliográfico; (4) the Instituto Andino de Arts Populares del Convenio Andrés Bello's Diablo huma; (5) the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Folklore's Boletín bibliográfico; and (6) the Universidad de Cuenca's (or del Azuay's) post World War II Boletín bibliográfico. (58) Diablo huma (1 [1992]-) is supposed to be, or, to have been, a semiannual covering new and recent works in the fields of folklore, popular culture, and social life and customs.

The authors may be doing fellow ecuatorianistas a disservice by offering such a comprehensive bibliography as it is no easy matter to lay hands on some of the bibliographies listed below. On the problems of book and journal production in the country and the difficulty of procuring copies thereof see: (1) David Block's "Current Trends in Andean Scholarly Publishing: Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia"; (59) (3) Francisco Delgado Santos's El libro en el Ecuador; (60) (3) Carl W. Deal's Academic Publishing in Ecuador; (61) (4) Carlos Calderón Chico's El libro ecuatoriano en el umbral de un nuevo siglo; (62) and (5) Freire Rubio's Desde el mostrador del librero (entry 132).

Many of the bibliographies discussed above and described below are dated, considerably dated in some instances. In this regard, it should be noted that almost half were published before 1976 (148 or 46.7 percent of the 316 listed below). The retrospective bibliographies are incomplete. Comprehensive bibliographies are lacking for some disciplines and fields of study. Yet publications in and on Ecuador continue to proliferate. The demise of the Cuenca branch of the Centro de Investigación y Cultura's Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano is all the more lamentable, therefore. Given the volatility of politics, including cultural, in the country and the ongoing economic crisis, it is unlikely that the Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano will be revived or a true successor appear, at least not in the foreseeable future. Bibliographic control of ecuatoriana, therefore, continues to be badly needed, more so now than ever.

Nonetheless, the gains of the second half of the twentieth century, especially of the last quarter century, are impressive. Indicative of this is the sheer number of bibliographies that appeared between 1976 and 2000, at least 165 or 52.4 per cent of the total listed below. Bibliographies published during the last quarter century also tended to be descriptively more complete and appreciably better indexed than their predecessors. Hopefully the quantitative and qualitative gains of the current quarter century will be even more impressive than those of the last.


1.  All that we have been able to ascertain anything about Altamirano's coauthor Carrillo is that she too was a professionally trained librarian.

2.  These statistics do not reflect the additional materials cited in the text and notes.

3.  On the emergence and development of bibliographic canons during the early modern period, see Luigi Balsamo's magisterial survey, La bibliografia: storia di una tradizione (Florence: Sansoni Editore, 1984), also available as Bibliography: History of a Tradition, translated from the Italian by William A. Pettas (Berkeley: Bernard M. Rosenthal, Inc., 1990).

4.  3 vols. (Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1841-1844). Reprinted: 3 vols. Quito: Empresa Editora "El Comercio," 1946.

5.  Historie du Royaume de Quito, 2 vols., Voyages, relations et mémoires originaux pour servir a l'histoire de la découverte de l'Amérique, publiés pour la première fois en français par H. Ternaux-Compans, XVIII-XIX (Paris: Arthus Bertrand, 1840). Arturo Andrés Roig maintains that "En 1837 salió en París una versión castellana que incluye tan solo una parte de la Historia antigua," but he neglects to provide the corresponding reference, and we have been unable to find a description of the edition in question: "Juan de Velasco," Histora de las literaturas del Ecuador(Quito: Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Sede Ecuador: Corporación Editora Nacional, 2001-), 2:184.

6.  With an introduction by Julio Tobar Donoso, 2 vols., Biblioteca ecuatoriana mínima, [9-10] (Puebla, México: Cajica, 1960), 1:403-418. Prepared from the ms. obtained by José Modesto Larrea in Europe from Father Velasco's heirs--apparently sometime between 1822 and 1825--as was also the version mutilated by Yerovi.

7.  3 vols. Quito, 1977-1979. See vol. 1, pp. 426-439. This version was prepared from microfilm copies of the ms. originals held by the Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit" in Cotocollao and the Real Academia de la Historia in Madrid by Juan Freile Granizo (1941-) and others. Velasco's Historia del Reino de Quito en la América Meridional, as edited by Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco, Biblioteca Ayacucho, 82 (Caracas: Editorial Arte, 1981) excludes the Historia natural and therefore also the "Catálogo de algunos escritores," and in many respects, is almost as flawed as Yerovi's version.

8.  A satisfactory biography and critical assessment of Velasco has yet to be written, but see Carlos Manuel Larrea, Tres historiadores: Velasco, González Suárez, Jijón y Caamaño, prólogo de Jorge Salvador Lara (Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión," 1988); and vol. 1 of Arturo Andrés Roig, El humanismo ecuatoriano de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, 2 vols., Biblioteca básica del pensamiento ecuatoriano, 18-19 (Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Corporación Editora Nacional, 1984).

9.  The bibliographic labors of Antonio de Alcedo have been inadequately studied and wrongfully denigrated. Henry Harrisse (1829-1910), for example, dismissed Alcedo's work, then available only in ms., as a "bulky compilation [that] seems to be based entirely upon Pinelo-Barcia [i.e., Antonio de León Pinelo's Epitome de la biblioteca Oriental i Occidental, nautica y geografica(Madrid: Iuan Gonzalez, 1629), and under the same title Andrés González de Barcia Carbadillo y Zúñiga's 3 vol. rev. and aug. version (Madrid: Oficina de Francisco Martinez Abad, 1737-1738)], with the addition of a few biographical notes, which are of interest only when referring to modern American authors": Bibliotheca americana vetustissima: a description of works relating to America published between the years 1492 and 1551 (New York: Gep P. Philes Publisher, MDCCCLXVI [1866]), xxiv. Somewhat surprisingly, this egregious as well as erroneous assertion is repeated by José Toribio Medina in his Biblioteca hispanoamericana, 1493-1810, 7 vols. (Santiago de Chile: Impreso y grabado en casa del autor, 1898-1907), 6:cxvi.

10.  Cuenca, 19 de mayo de 1858: Impreso por Joaquín Maya; 26 p.

11.  Two candidates for which may be: Bookworm, "Bibliografía ecuatoriana," Diez de agosto, 1:9 (25 mayo 1881): 264-272; and "Revista bibliográfica," Revista literaria de El Progreso(Cuenca), 1:3 (mar. 1885): 33-38. These citations were taken from the Diccionario bibliográfico ecuatoriano (item 46). They remain to be verified and their nature and contents ascertained.

12.  Biblioteca boliviana (1869), 2ª ed. facsim., 2 vols. (La Paz: Fundación Humberto Vázquez-Machicado, 1991-1996), which includes Moreno's supplements of 1900 and 1908, Valentín Abecia's Adiciones a la Biblioteca boliviana de Gabriel René-Moreno (Santiago de Chile, 1899), and an added subject index; Biblioteca peruana: apuntes para un catálogo de impresos (1896), 2 vols. (Naarden: Anton W. Van Bekhoven, Publisher, 1970). See also José Toribio Medina, La imprenta en Lima, 1584-1824, 4 vols. (Santiago de Chile: Impreso y grabado en casa del autor, 1904-1907; reprinted: Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1965) and Rubén Vargas Ugarte, Impresos peruanos, 6 vols., Biblioteca peruana, 7-12 (Lima: R. Vargas Ugarte, 1953-1957). Unfortunately, Medina and Vargas Ugarte's vade mecum lack subject indexes. Also Vargas Ugarte's Impresos peruanos does not entirely supplant Medina's La imprenta en Lima inasmuch as the former did not incorporate all of the latter's entries. Therefore researchers need to work their way systematically through both. One final caveat is in order. Although Vargas Ugarte nearly doubled the known output for the colonial period presses of Lima and Juli, an assiduous search of North American and European repositories will turn up several hundred items unknown to Moreno, Medina, and Vargas Ugarte.

13.  In addition to Stols's account see Francisco Miranda Ribadeneira, La primera imprenta ecuatoriana, su primer promotor, el primer impresor, 1755-1955 (Ambato: Publicación del Muy Ilustre Concejo Municipal de Ambato, 1955), which reprints "La primera obra literaria de importancia publicada en la primera imprenta: Carta pastoral del Obispo Polo del Aguila, compuesta por el P. Juan Bautista de Aguirre" (pp. 47-61) and includes a "Bibliografía de obras editadas en la primera imprenta de Ambato" (pp. 41-45).

14.  Castillo's doctoral dissertation was published as Los gobernadores de Guayaquil del siglo XVIII: notas para la historia de la ciudad durante los años de 1763 a 1803 (Madrid: Impr. de Galo Sáez, 1931) and reprinted in 1978 by the Archivo Histórico del Guayas.

15.  Some additional information, however, appears in Francisco Delgado Santos's El libro en el Ecuador: situación y perspectivas (Bogotá: Centro Regional para el Fomento del Libro en América Latina y el Caribe, 1987), 12-14.

16.  Insofar as the history of printing per se is concerned, it could be argued that 1906, at the earliest, would be a better cutoff date for the registration of nineteenth-century imprints inasmuch as it was not until that year that mechanized typography was introduced, initially in Guayaquil. At the earliest, because the rest of the country lagged behind the port city. Linotypes did not begin tobe used in the capital until 1914, for example. Cylinder presses, on the other hand, were introduced as early as the first half of the 1870s. Although Sánchez does not tell us what kind of cylinder presses or how they were operated, undoubtedly they were worked by hand.

17.  Víctor León Vivar Correa's 1892 "Hombres y cosas del Ecuador: noticia de algunas publicaciones ecuatorianas" (entry 310) erroneously reported as "apparently the first attempt to register national publications" in Hamerly's Bibliography of Ecuadorian Bibliographies (entry 246), is in reality is a bibliographic essay on the reformer bishop of Quito José Pérez Calama and the physician, pensador , and precursor Eugenio Espejo.

18.  Bibliographical series, no. 1 (Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Book Exchange, 1938); Bibliographical series, no. 4 (Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Book Exchange, 1939), both of which were mimeographed. See also the related ten page, also mimeographed Producción bibliográfica ecuatoriana, 1938, produced by the Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador in 1939. It is not known if the National Library issued a Producción bibliográfica ecuatoriana for 1936-1937.

19.  Edwing Guerrero Blum, Sociedades ecuatorianas de escritores y artistas (entry 143), 72.

20.  Freire Rubio has also given us a history of booksellers in Quito (the only one for any city or town in the country to date): ¡Esas viejas librerías de Quito!, 1ª ed (Quito: Cámara Ecuatoriana del Libro, Núcleo de Pichincha, 1993; 100 pp.).

21.  Personal communication of Edgar Freire Rubio of 23 July 2002.

22.  For directories of libraries in the country as of the 1970s and 1980s see: André Preibish, Directorio-guía de las bibliotecas en Ecuador (Ottawa: National Library of Canada, Collections Development Branch, 1979; vii, 117 pp.); and Fernando Carrión, Centros de investigación y bibliotecas: directorio ecuatoriano, 1ª ed. (Quito: Centro de Investigaciones CIUDAD-CONUEP, 1988; 306 pp.).

23.  For a guide to and discussion of the limited literature on universities in Quito during the colonial period see: Pilar Ponce Leiva, "La educación disputada: repaso bibliográfico sobre la enseñanza universitaria en la Audiencia de Quito" (entry 244).

24.  Regarding the introduction of European, especially peninsular, imprints into the colony, see Pedro José Rueda Ramírez, "La circulación de libros desde Europa a Quito en los siglos XVI-XVII," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia , 15 (I-II semestres 2000): 3-20.

25.  Quoted in Rodrigo Fierro Benítez, Magdalena de Carrera, and Jorge Revelo Rosero. Bibliografía científica médica ecuatoriana publicada en el exterior (entry 128), ix. In this regard, it should also be noted that publishers are not required by law to deposit copies of imprints with the National Library. There is a ministerial decree to that effect (no. 10,284 of the Ministerio de Educación y Cultura), but it has neither been observed nor enforced.

26.  The catalogs of the majority of university libraries in Ecuador are now on the Web. Some have restricted access, including those of the Universidad Central. Although important as indicators of the holdings of said libraries, their utility as bibliographies (at least the online catalogs that the author has been able to access), is virtually nonexistent. Hopefully, some day, however, they will serve as bases for the creation of a national online union list. For a discussion of movement in this direction, see entry 83.

27.  Chaves erroneously reported vol. III as never having been published and was unaware of the Apéndice (entry 79, p. 12).

28.  No. 1 (mayo de 1998)-. Probably discontinued after the subsequent removal of the team that had been producing the Diccionario bibliográfico ecuatoriano.

29.  See especially: Pablo Herrera's Antología de prosistas ecuatorianos, 2 vols. (Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1895-1896) and his Ensayo sobre la historia de la literatura ecuatoriana (Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1860; 149 pp.); Mera's Ojeada histórico-crítica sobre la poesía ecuatoriana: desde su época más remota hasta nuestros días, 2ª ed. (Barcelona: Impr. y Litogr. de José Cunil Sala, 1893; x, 633, ii pp.), the 1st ed. of which was published in Quito in 1868; and Moncayo's "Ensayo sobre la Historia de la literatura ecuatoriana , por Pablo Herrera," Museo Histórico, 17:51 (abr./jun. 1971): 1-65, originally published: Santiago de Chile: Impr. y Librería del Mercurio de Santos Tornero, 1861. Although not of any great bibliographic importance, these four works contain considerable information on authors of the colonial, independence, and early national periods. Two other pioneering, nowadays all but forgotten, but still important works in this regard are the guayaquileño Vicente Emilio Molestina's Lira ecuatoriana: colección de poesías líricas nacionales, escojidas i ordenadas con apuntamientos biográficos (Guayaquil: Impr. y Encuad. de Calvo i Cª, 1866; ix, 340 pp.) and his Literature ecuatoriana: colección de antigüedades literarias, fábulas, epigramas, sátiras y cuadros descriptivos de costumbres nacionales, escogidas y ordenadas con apuntamientos biográficos (Lima: Tip. y Encuad. de A. Alfaro y Cª, 1868; 163 pp.). Molestina was much shorter lived than his highland colleagues; his dates are 1846-1875.

30.  On the formation and subject trajectory of the Espinosa Pólit Library see Julián G. Bravo, La Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit, S.I." (Quito: Instituto Superior de Humanidades de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1967; 27 pp.) and Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit," 1929-1979: Biblioteca - archivo de escritores y asuntos ecuatorianos y museo de arte e historia (Quito: Talleres Gráficos "Minerva," [1979?]; 140 pp.).

31.  The year of Espinosa Cordero's birth is sometimes given as 1901 instead of 1902; the latter, however, appears to be correct. The authors have not yet been able to ascertain what year he died.

32.  Díaz Cueva doubts that Espinosa Cordero personally held copies of the majority of early and rare books that he described in his several bibliographies.

33.  Espinosa Cordero himself considered his Bibliografía ecuatoriana to have been no more than a preliminary effort. Unfortunately, adverse circumstances precluded his publishing the more definitive work he had in mind and apparently had begun to prepare.

34.  María Cristina Cárdenas Reyes, Miguel Díaz Cueva, and Alberto Luna Tobar, Cultura política e iglesia: Fray Vicente Solano y la formación del estado nacional ecuatoriano (Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay: Universidad de Cuenca, 1996; 525 pp.); and Miguel Díaz Cueva and Fernando Jurado Noboa, Alfaro y su tiempo, 1ª ed., Colección SAG, 118 (Quito: Fundación Cultural del Ecuador, 1999; 315 pp.).

35.  Díaz Cueva's bibliography of Solano has been updated and supplemented by María Cristina Cárdenas Reyes's Fray Vicente Solano y su época: fuentes documentales (entry 61), with considerable input from Díaz Cueva himself.

36.  See also, however, the sections on "Serials" in the present author's Historical Bibliography of Ecuador (entry 150) and on "Ecuador" in Gabriela Sonntag, Serial Publications Available by Exchange: South America, Bibliography and Reference Series, 37 (Albuquerque: SALALM Secretariat, General Library, University of New Mexico, 1995), 120-132.

37.  Guayaquil: Impr. de "El Grito del Pueblo," 1909; 233 pp.

38.  1ª ed., 3 vols. Colección Guayaquil. (Guayaquil: Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 1998).

39.  145 años de legislación ecuatoriana, 1830-1975, 2 vols. (Quito: Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1977).

40.  The section on Ecuador, compiled by Estrella, is extensive (pp. 19-81). See also Rolando Costa Ardúz's Bibliografía sobre medicinal tradicional del area andina (La Paz: Instituto Internacional de Integración, 1987; xxxvi, 178 pp.), which includes Ecuadorian materials. Unfortunately, it consists of a simple list of works in alphabetical order by authors, and is not indexed by countries or subjects.

41.  According to Estrella, Principales fuentes (p. 16), the Banco de Información Científico-Médica de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de la Universidad Central del Ecuador published three vols. of Bibliografía médica nacional between 1979 and 1983, consisting of 134, 160, 85 pp., respectively, but the authors have not yet been able to verify their particulars. They have, however, seen No. 4 (1989; 283 pp.). It and apparently also nos. 1-3 are indexed by authors, titles, and subjects. Nos. 1-4 register a total of 8,389 items. Also useful is Estrella's section 4 (pp. 18-20) in which he lists bibliographies of theses in medicine done at the universities of Quito, Guayaquil, Cuenca, and Loja, and sections 5.1 (pp. 21-22) of "Estudios bibliográficos [médicos] por tema," 5.2 (pp. 22-23), "Estudios bibliográficos [de médicos]," and 5.3 (pp. 23-25), "Bibliografías individuales."

42.  See, for example, Madero's classic Historia de la medicina en la Provincia del Guayas(Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas, 1955).

43.  Estrella was particularly interested in the history of natural science, which had been little cultivated in his country. He rescued from quasi oblivion and edited with extensive introductions the exceptionally important Juan José Tafalla, Flora Huayaquilensis: sive descriptiones et icones plantarum huayaquilensium secundum systema linnaeanum digestae, 2 v. in 1 case (cvi, 283, ccv pp.) (Matritii [i.e., Madrid]: Instituto ad Conservandam Naturam (ICONA, M.A.P.A.); Horto Regio Matritense, 1989.); and Antonio Pineda Ramírez's not forgotten but inadequately known Trabajos zoológicos, geológicos, químicos y físicos en Guayaquil (Barcelona: Lunwerg Editores, 1996; 237 p.). Pineda Ramírez was a member of the Alejandro Malaspina Expedition. The tome in question constitutes vol. 8 of the "Expedición Malaspina" series.

44.  Saville awaits a full scale biographical treatment, but see Segundo E. Moreno Yánez, Antropología ecuatoriana: pasado y presente (Quito: Edit. Ediguías, 1992; 136 p.) on the contributions of international as well as national scholars to the emergence of anthropology, archaeology, and ethnohistory as disciplines in the country.

45.  For an appreciation of Rivet's contributions to the archaeology and ethnography of Ecuador, see Paul Rivet, 1876-1976: selección de estudios científicos y biográficos (Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1977; 365 p.).

46.  Jorge G. Marcos, "Max Uhle y la arqueología en el Ecuador: precursor, investigador y profesor," in Estudios andinos: Max Uhle, su obra, y su repercusión, herausgegeben von Ursula Thiemer-Sachse ... [et al.], Indiana (Berlin, Germany), 15 (Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1998), 197-215; Michael Tellenbach, "Acerca de las investigaciones de Max Uhle sobre las culturas tempranas de Surecuador" in ibid., 269-353.

47.  For an appreciation of the bibliographic and other labors of Olaf Holm, see Susana Guimaraes, "Olaf Holm (1915-1996)," Journal de la Société des Américanistes 83 (1997): 316-320.

48.  For a partial guide to other bibliographies of agriculture see Armando Cardoza's two leaf Bibliografía de bibliografías agrícolas del Ecuador, 1965-1972 (Quito: Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agrícolas de la OEA, 1973). Cardoza (1928-) is a Bolivian agronomist.

49.  It seems that INEC expects foreign governments and libraries to make up its budget deficit, judging by its outrageous prices. The three vols. of the "Serie Descentralización," for example, sell for $480 inside of Ecuador, but for $810 elsewhere in Latin America, and for $1,200 in "the rest of the world." No wonder libraries in North America and Europe bought only the first vol., Compendio de las necesidades básicas insatisfechas de la población ecuatoriana: mapa de la pobreza (Guayaquil: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, 1995). The other two vols. in the set, also published in 1995, are: Propuesta para descentralizar las rentas del Estado (II) and Dinero descentralizado convertido en bienestar (III).

50.  Memoria, MARKA, Instituto de Historia y Antropología Andina, 1 (nov. 1990): 189-256.

51.  Alejandro Pro Meneses, Discografía del pasillo ecuatoriano (entry 246).

52.  The way in which the Snell bibliography came to the authors's attention highlights one of the problems of online searching, knowing under which subject headings to look. The Snell bibliography shows up under "Galapagos Islands - Bibliography" sans country qualifier and therefore does not appear under any search qualified by the term "Ecuador" regardless of how employed.

53.  From North to South, the eastern provinces are: Sucumbios, Orellana, Napo, Pastana, Morona-Santiago, and Zamora-Chinchipe.

54.  To which should be added Santos A. Himiob's Sucre, época & épica, 1795-1995: bibliografía del general en jefe y gran mariscal de Ayacucho Antonio José de Sucre: homenaje en el bicentenario de su nacimiento (Caracas: Biblioteca Nacional, 1995; 145 pp.), which consists of 1,680 entries. Indexed chronologically and thematically.

55.  Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Instituto de Investigaciones, Banco de Información Científica Médica Ecuatoriana, 1989.

56.  Apparently published in Caspicara, 5 (1995).

57.  The only issues the authors have seen are: Año XVII, número 53, consisting of 480 pages, and corresponding to "Libros ingresados durante el período de enero a dic. de 1974"; and Año XVIII, número 55, consisting of 75 pages, and corresponding to "Libros ingresados durante el período de julio a diciembre de 1975." The materials acquired during said periods are described minimally and listed in accordance with the Universal Decimal System.

58.  The latter of which is supposed to have included in its title in one way or another "Juan Bautista Vázquez." In this regard, it should be noted that pre-AACR2 serial records in OCLC tend to be bibliographically worthless. AACR2 serial records are not much better, not so much because libraries tend to catalog from copy in hand, usually incomplete, which is understandable enough, but because far too few cataloguers make an effort to obtain more complete information, admittedly not always easy, more often than not because their institutions do not provide them with the time or the resources, which is again understandable but, nonetheless, deplorable.

59.  Revista interamericana de bibliografía = Inter-American Review of Bibliography , 36 (1986): 129-144.

60.  Bogotá: Centro Regional para el Fomento del Libro en América Latina y el Caribe, 1987; 65 pp.

61.  Latin American Information Series, 4. Albuquerque: SALAAM Secretariat, General Library, University of New Mexico, 1994; 34 pp.

62.  Of which there are two editions: Guayaquil: C. Calderón Chico, 2000; 74 pp.; and 2ª ed. corr. y aum. (Guayaquil: C. Calderón Chico, 2000; 79 pp).