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Indians and Leftists 

This is an Electronic Appendix of documents to accompany my book Indians and Leftists in the Making of Ecuador’s Modern Indigenous Movements (Duke University Press, 2008).


1250 Complex forms of socio-political organization often called the Caranqui federation emerge in the northern highlands of Ecuador.

ca. 1515 After seventeen years of fighting, the Inkas finally defeat the Caranqui forces.

July 1534 Spanish conquistador Sebastián de Benalcázar subjugates Cayambe to Spanish control.

1563 The Spanish incorporate Cayambe into the Audiencia of Quito as part of the corregimiento of Otavalo.

1578 Jumandi's uprising in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

1599 Shuar revolt.

November 1777 A revolt against a census spreads throughout the northern Audiencia of Quito.

1791 Indigenous rebellion against a public works mita labor draft at Lita.

1803 Indigenous uprising at Guamote, Chimborazo against diezmos.

May 24, 1822 Antonio José de Sucre defeats Spanish forces at the battle of Pichincha, leading to Ecuador's independence as part of the country of Gran Colombia.

1824 Cayambe is constructed as a parroquia of the province of Imbabura in the newly independent country of Gran Colombia.

1830 Ecuador separates from Gran Colombia.

1852 Ecuador eliminates slavery.

1857 Ecuador eliminates forced tribute payments.

1861 Conservative leader Gabriel García Moreno assumes power.

December 1871 Fernando Daquilema's revolt in the central highland province of Chimborazo.

1883 Cayambe gains canton status within the province of Pichincha.

September 5, 1884 Alejo Sáez leads an uprising against the payment of diezmos in his home community of Licto, Chimborazo.

1892 Foundation of the Sociedad Artística e Industrial de Pichincha (Artistic and Industrial Society of Pichincha) which subsequently provides logical support to Indigenous movement.

June 5, 1895 Eloy Alfaro leads the Liberal Revolution to victory.

August 10, 1895 Eloy Alfaro stops in Guamote, Chimborazo where he elevates Alejo Sáez to the grade of General in his liberal army.

1896 Junta de Beneficencia (Social Welfare Junta) formed in Quito.

January 12, 1897 Promulgation of Ecuador's eleventh constitution.

April 12, 1899 "Patronage Law" regulates but does not abolish the system of concertaje.

October 12, 1904 Ley de Cultos expropriates church-owned land.

December 23, 1906 Promulgation of Ecuador's twelfth constitution.

November 6, 1908 Ley de Beneficencia (better known as "Manos Muertas") passes control of church land to the Junta Central de Asistencia Pública.

August 1909 I Congreso Obrero Ecuatoriano (First Ecuadorian Labor Congress) in Quito.

January 28, 1912 Mob kills Eloy Alfaro in Quito.

October 25, 1918 Law theoretically abolishes concertaje system.

March 1920 New agricultural taxes lead to uprisings in Cuenca.

May 1920 Revolts against taxes in Chimborazo leave fifty Indians dead.

August 24, 1920 Uprising in Ricaurte, Azuay against taxes

October 7-15, 1920 II Congreso Obrero Ecuatoriano (Second Ecuadorian Labor Congress) in Guayaquil.

May 1921 Uprising at Guano, Chimborazo

May 24, 1922 III Congreso Obrero Ecuatoriano (Third Ecuadorian Labor Congress) in Quito.

1922 Crnl. Juan Manuel Lasso Ascásubi attempts to launch a socialist revolution from the Guachalá hacienda in Cayambe.

November 15, 1922 Police forces massacre striking workers in Guayaquil.

September 13, 1923 Army kills thirty-seven Indians on the Leito hacienda in Tungurahua

November 16, 1924 Socialists in Quito begin to publish La Antorcha.

1924 Matilde Hidalgo de Procel is first woman to vote in Ecuador.

January 1925 First socialist group La Antorcha meets in Quito.

1925 Another uprising in Azuay.

July 9, 1925 A military coup leads to the Julian Revolution.

September 22, 1925 Mexican diplomat Rafael Ramos Pedrueza organizes the Communist Section for Propaganda and Action Lenin (Sección Comunista de Propaganda y Acción Lenin) that later becomes the PCE.

December 13, 1925 Socialist assembly in Sucre Theater, Quito

January 1926 Jesús Gualavisí forms the Peasant Workers Syndicate of Juan Montalvo (Sindicato de Trabajadores Campesinos de Juan Montalvo), the first peasant-Indigenous organization in Ecuador; he subsequently leads uprisings at Changalá hacienda in Cayambe over land.

May 16-23, 1926 Leftists hold the founding congress of the Ecuadorian Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Ecuatoriano, PSE) in Quito.

October 1926 - March 1927 The Kemmerer Mission visits Ecuador which leads to the founding of the Banco Central.

1927-1928 Ricardo Paredes visits the Soviet Union for the tenth anniversary of the October Revolution and the Sixth Congress of the Communist International.

August 17-September 1, 1928 Sixth Congress of the Communist International.

1927-1931 Formation of El Inca, Pan y Tierra, and Tierra Libre peasant syndicates at the Pesillo, Moyurco, and La Chimba haciendas.

February 1928 Military massacre of fourteen Indians at Tisaleo, Tungurahua.

January 10, 1929 Military and police allegedly massacre hundreds of Indians at Colta, Chimborazo.

January 12, 1929 Ricardo Paredes gains control of the PSE at a meeting of the Central Committee and brings it closer in line with the Communist International.

March 26, 1929 Promulgation of Ecuador's thirteenth constitution grants the right to vote to women and provides for functional representation for Indigenous peoples.

May 18-26, 1929 Congreso Constituyente de la Conferación Sindical Latinoamericana (Constituent Congress of the Confederation of Latin American Labor Unions) held in Montevideo, Uruguay.

June 1-12, 1929 Primera Conferencia Comunista Latinoamericana (First Latin American Communist Conference) held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

September 29, 1929 Massacre of ten workers at the Tigua hacienda who were petitioning for an end to abuses and lower work demands.

August 21, 1930 Socialist Party creates Worker and Peasant Help (Socorro Obrero y Campesino) to defend Indigenous and peasant struggles.

December 1930 The PSE splits into socialist and communists wings, with Ricardo Paredes leading the communist wing.

December 1930 - January 1931 Indians strike on the Pesillo and Moyurco haciendas in northern Cayambe.

February 1, 1931 Military repression prevents the First Congress of Peasant Organizations (Primer Congreso de Organizaciones Campesinos) from taking place in Juan Montalvo, Cayambe.

October 6-15, 1931 At its second congress, the PSE formally changes its name to the Ecuadorian Communist Party (Partido Comunista Ecuatoriano, PCE).

October 20-21, 1931 Neptalí Bonifaz Ascásubi, owner of the Guachalá hacienda, wins the presidential election.

August 28-31, 1932 Bonifaz is prevented from assuming the presidency of Ecuador in a four-day war called the Guerra de los Cuatro Días.

April 1933 First meeting of the PCE Central Committee in Guayaquil.

1933 Socialists reestablish the PSE.

December 14-15, 1933 José María Velasco Ibarra elected president for the first of five times. Ricardo Paredes runs unsuccessfully as a candidate for the PCE.

1934 Jorge Icaza publishes Huasipungo, Ecuador's most famous indigenista novel.

September 1, 1934 Velasco Ibarra takes office for the first of five times.

February 1935 Indigenous uprising on the Licto, Galte, and Pull haciendas in Chimborazo for better salaries and an end to abuses.

July 25-August 25, 1935 Seventh Congress of the Communist International.

November 5-7, 1935 Conference of Indigenous Leaders (Conferencia de Cabecillas Indígenas) held in Quito.

December 25-29, 1935 First National Conference of the Ecuadorian Communist Party (I Conferencia Nacional del Partido Comunista Ecuatoriana) in Milagro.

1936 Founding of the Indigenous Defense Committee (Comité Central de Defensa Indígena).

November 28, 1936 Páez suppresses the Communist Party as a legal organization after accusing it of participating in a coup against his government.

August 6, 1937 Promulgation of the Law of Communities (Ley de Comunas).

August 5, 1938 Promulgation of the Labor Code (Código del Trabajo).

1938 Formation of the Confederación Ecuatoriana de Obreros Católicos (CEDOC, Ecuadorian Confederation of Catholic Workers).

1941 Border war with Peru leads to the loss of half of Ecuador's territory.

January 29, 1942 Signing of Río de Janeiro Protocol.

May 15, 1943 Dissolution of the Comintern.

September 14, 1943 Urban intellectuals establish the Ecuadorian Indigenist Institute (Instituto Indigenista Ecuatoriano, IIE) in Quito.

May 28, 1944 Victory of the Glorious May Revolution; Dolores Cacuango leads attack on military barracks (Cuartel de Carabineros) in Cayambe. Velasco Ibarra takes power.

July 4-9, 1944 Labor leaders found the Confederation of Ecuadorian Workers (Confederación de Trabajadores del Ecuador, CTE) in Quito.

August 6-8, 1944 Indigenous leaders found the Ecuadorian Federation of Indians (Federación Ecuadoriana de Indios, FEI) in Quito.

1945 Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare creates the Department of Indian Affairs (Departmento de Asuntos Indígenas) and Council of Indian Matters (Junta de Cuestiones Indígenas) in order to supervise compliance with laws and prevent abuse in regards to land, water, and other issues.

March 6, 1945 Promulgation of Ecuador's fourteenth constitution.

1946 Indian leaders found bilingual schools at Yanahuaico, San Pablourco, Pesillo, and La Chimba in Cayambe.

February 8-12, 1946 Second FEI Congress held in Quito.

November 16-22, 1946 Third PCE Congress in Quito.

December 31, 1946 Promulgation of Ecuador's fifteenth constitution.

1947 Establishment of the Council of Indian and Rural Affairs (Junta de Cuestiones Indígenas y Campesinas).

April 19, 1947 FEI organizes a Conference of Indigenous Leaders (Conferencia de Dirigentes Indígenas) at Quito's Central University.

April 19-23, 1948 Third FEI Congress held in Quito.

May 1948 Uprisings in Cayambe end payment of diezmos and primicias.

September 1, 1948 Hacendado Galo Plaza Lasso assumes presidency, representing the beginning of a twelve-year period of stability and economic growth.

August 1-7, 1949 Fourth PCE Congress in Guayaquil.

September 1949 FEI defends workers on Razuyacu hacienda.

November 18-20, 1950 Extraordinary FEI Congress discusses the national census.

November 25, 1950? First national census.

July 24-28, 1952 Fifth PCE Congress in Ambato.

end August 1952 Fourth FEI Congress.

September 1, 1952 Velasco Ibarra becomes president for the third of five terms in office, the only one he manages to complete.

July 22, 1953 Eight-month strike at Galte hacienda in Chimborazo ended with gains for Indigenous workers.

August 6, 1953 Massacre at La Merced hacienda in Pintag.

January 10, 1954 Police attack workers at Pitaná on the Guachalá hacienda killing four people and injuring others.

September 1954 Formation of the Federation of Coastal Agricultural Workers (FTAL, Federación de Trabajadores Agrícolas del Litoral).

1954 First agrarian census.

September 1, 1956 Conservative Camilo Ponce Enríquez becomes president.

April 27-28, 1957 Conference of Campesinos from Pichincha, Imbabura, and Cotopaxi held in Quito.

May 24-28, 1957 VI Congress of the PCE in Quito.

January 1, 1959 Triumph of the Cuban Revolution.

1959 Indians march on Quito and hold a 90-day strike at Pesillo.

August 20, 1960 Uprising at Milagro.

September 1, 1960 Velasco Ibarra takes power as president for the fourth time.

October 15-17, 1960 The CTE organizes the First National Peasant Conference (Primera Conferencia Nacional Campesina) in Quito.

December 18, 1960 Uprising on the Carrera hacienda in Cayambe.

February 5, 1961 Uprising on the Columbe hacienda in Chimborazo.

September 13-17, 1961 The Local Association of Jívaro Centers organized in the southern Amazon with the assistance of Salesian missionaries.

November 7, 1961 Fall of Velasco Ibarra; Vice-president Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy takes power.

December 16, 1961 12,000 Indians and peasants from FEI march on Quito for agrarian reform

December 16-18, 1961 III Congreso Ordinario de la FEI.

March 9-13, 1962 VII Congress of the PCE in Guayaquil.

March 1962 Workers take over the United Fruit Company's Tenguel Hacienda on Ecuador's southern coast.

May 1962 Protests at Cotopaxi, Tungurahua, Chimborazo, and Azuay against the agricultural census. Indians strike at Pesillo for higher wages and land for landless workers.

June 2, 1962 Marc Becker is born to Harold and Irene Becker in Freeman, South Dakota.

August 15, 1962 Massacre of Salasaca Indians in Tungurahua who were demanding access to water.

July 11, 1963 Military coup overthrows the civilian government of Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy.

July 11, 1964 Military government promulgates agrarian reform law.

August 3, 1964 150 Indians revolt on El Chaupi hacienda, Cayambe.

October 22, 1964 The Ministry of Social Welfare approves the statutes that formally establishes the Federación de Centros Shuar (Shuar Federation).

March 9, 1965 CEDOC founds the Federación Ecuatoriana de Trabajadores Agropecuarios (FETEP, Ecuadorian Federation of Agricultural Workers), which becomes FENOC in 1968.

March 29, 1966 Military turns government back over to civilian control.

October 21-22, 1966 FEI holds its fourth congress in Quito.

October 28, 1966 Indians take over the Pisambilla, Muyurco, El Chaupi, San Pablourco, and Pesillo haciendas.

May 25, 1967 Promulgation of Ecuador's sixteenth constitution.

1968 Strike begins at Pul hacienda in Chimborzo and spreads to neighboring haciendas, paralyzing production in the canton.

July 2, 1968 Land occupation at the Santa Ana hacienda in Canton Calvas in Loja, leads to a massacre of eight arrimados and injury of twenty-two more.

August 1-4, 1968 VIII Congress of the PCE in Guayaquil.

September 1, 1968 Velasco Ibarra assumes presidency for the fifth and final time.

November 26-28, 1968 Catholics found the National Federation of Peasant Organizations (Federación Nacional de Organizaciones Campesinos, FENOC).

1969 Formation of the Federación Provincial de Organizaciones Campesinas de Napo (FEPOCAN, Provincial Federation of Peasant Organizations of Napo), which in 1973 changes its name to the Federación de Organizaciones Indígenas del Napo (FOIN, Federation of Indigenous Organizations of Napo).

February 15, 1972 Military coup led by Guillermo Rodríguez Lara removes Velasco Ibarra from office for the fifth and last time.

June 2, 1972 Activists organize ECUARUNARI (Ecuador Runacunapac Riccharimui, a Kichwa phrase which means "Awakening of the Ecuadorian Indians").

June 17, 1972 Fifth congress of the FEI in Quito.

1972 FEI, FENOC, and Ecuarunari together with coastal groups organize the United Front for Agrarian Reform (Frente Unitario de Reforma Agraria, FURA).

May 17, 1973 Landlords kill Cristóbal Pajuña in Tungurahua, giving Ecuarunari its first martyr.

August 18-20, 1973 FURA organizes the First Peasant Encounter for Agrarian Reform (I Encuentro Nacional Campesino por la Reforma Agraria) in Quito.

October 9, 1973 Government implements second agrarian reform law.

November 15-18, 1973 IX Congress of the PCE in Guayaquil.

September 26, 1974 Police kill Ecuarunari leader Lázaro Condo in Chimborazo.

January 11, 1976 Military triumvirate replaces Rodríguez Lara in power.

October 18, 1977 Massacre of hundreds of striking workers at Aztra sugar mill.

November 2, 1977 Police torture and kill Rafael Perugachi, local Indigenous leader in Cotacachi.

April 8, 1978 FEI, FENOC, and Ecuarunari meet in Columbe, Chimborazo to form the Frente Unico de Lucha Campesina (FULC, United Front for Peasant Struggle).

1978 Kichwa, Achuar, Shuar, and Zápara peoples form the Organización de Pueblos Indígenas de Pastaza (OPIP, Organization of Indigenous Peoples of Pastaza).

August 10, 1979 Promulgation of seventeenth constitution gives illiterates the right to vote, extending citizenship rights to many Indigenous peoples for the first time.

August 10, 1979 Election of Jaime Roldós Aguilera as president transfers control of the government from military to civilian control.

1980 VI FEI Congress?

August 22-24, 1980 The Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas de la Amazonía Ecuatoriana (CONFENIAE, Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of the Ecuadorian Amazon) formed at the First Regional Conference of Indigenous Nationalities of the Ecuadorian Amazon in Puyo.

October 16, 1980 Ecuarunari, FENOC, and FEI organize National Peasant Indigenous March "Martyrs of Aztra" in Quito.

October 20-25, 1980 Meeting of CONFENIAE and Ecuarunari in Sucúa at the First Encounter of the Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador forms the Consejo Nacional de Coordinación de las Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador (CONACNIE, National Coordinating Council of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador).

November 1980 X Congress of the PCE

April 16-17, 1982 FENOC and Ecuarunari organize the First Peasant and Indigenous National Encounter in Quito.

December 2-3, 1983 FEI provincial congress in Riobamba.

April 11-14, 1984 CONACNIE holds the Second Encounter of Indigenous Nationalities.

July 15, 1984 FENOC and FEI hold the Second Peasant and Indigenous National Convention in Quito.

July 27-28, 1984 Second FEI provincial congress in Riobamba.

July 27-28, 1985 Third Peasant and Indigenous National Convention in Chordelég.

November 13-16, 1986 Indians organize the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador, CONAIE).

August 10, 1988 Rodrigo Borja becomes president.

November 10-13, 1988 II CONAIE Congress in Cañar.

July 27-28, 1989 VII Congress of the FEI.

May 28, 1990 Indigenous activists occupy Santo Domingo church in Quito demanding resolution of land disputes.

June 4, 1990 Nine-day CONAIE-led Indigenous uprising begins.

July 17-23, 1990 First Continental Conference on Five Hundred Years of Indigenous Resistance, Quito.

April 11-23, 1992 The Organization of Indigenous Peoples of Pastaza (OPIP) in the Ecuadorian Amazon leads a march (caminata) from Puyo to Quito demanding land titles and the declaration of Ecuador as a plurinational state.

October 12, 1992 Quincentennial of Columbus' voyage to the Americas.

1993 Amazonian Indians in Ecuador file a lawsuit in New York against Texaco for environmental damages to their lands.

June 1994 Peasant and Indigenous groups unify in an uprising called "La Movilización Por la Vida" (Mobilization for Life) in protest of a new agrarian law.

December 15-16, 1995 VIII Congress of the FEI.

May 19, 1996 Luis Macas, president of CONAIE, wins a post as a national deputy in the National Assembly on the Movimiento Unidad Plurinacional Pachakútic Nuevo País ticket.

February 5, 1997 Uprising evicts president Abdalá Bucaram from power.

June 5, 1998 Promulgation of Ecuador's eighteenth constitution declares Ecuador to be a pluricultural and multiethnic state..

January 21, 2000 Indigenous-military coup removes president Jamil Mahuad from power.

March 21-23, 2002 X Congreso of the FEI, Quito.

April 20, 2005 Popular uprising forces president Lucio Gutiérrez from power.

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