Shuar Federation 
 Based in the Amazon of Ecuador, the Shuar Federation emerged in 1964 as a response to agrarian reform laws.  That year, Ecuadorian dictator Rodriguez Lara began to encourage colonization of the Amazon forest, an area that had traditionally been inhabited by the Shuar Indians.  When the farming and oil industries moved into the area, the ecological effects were devastating.  The Indians’ lifestyle was interrupted and their lands were threatened.  In order to protect the land, as well as the foothold they had in Indian culture, a group of Catholic missionaries started the Shuar Federation.
Their first goal was to establish ownership of their land.  The Shuar see land as a communal holding, without an individual owner.  Thus, they worked to gain collective ownership.  With some outside help and funding, the organization has surveyed, mapped, and titled 400 communities.  Overall, they have safeguarded eighty percent of their ancestral land (Cadaval).
 Ultimately, the Shuar hope to preserve their culture, and in order to do so, they have implemented several programs.  First, they broadcast radio programming to the various Shuar villages.  These broadcasts keep the community informed, as well as educate the listeners.  Through radio and other bilingual education programs, the Shuar can keep their children at home instead of sending them to boarding schools.  Boarding schools are perceived as a major threat to cultural preservation because the education is western-style and the teachers are often nuns promoting Christianity (Sponsel 272).  In addition, simply by living away from the Shuar culture, children lose the Shuar identity.

Despite their successes in the areaof cultural preservation, the Shuar have encountered difficulties.  Their economy depends heavily on cattle ranching.  This industry poses a significant danger to the rain forest and the traditional Indian farming methods (Selverston 135).  Also, the Shuar have experienced considerable conflict with neighboring groups, partially because of their ranching.
 Though they have achieved many things on the local level, the Shuar Federation has limited resources.  In 1980, when the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of the Ecuadorian Amazon (CONFENIAE) formed, the Shuar were immediately involved.  This umbrella organization works on a national level to fight for land, human rights, and cultural survival in general (Selverston 135).  Leaders of the Shuar Federation often become leaders in CONFENIAE.  Thus, the Shuar Federation serves as a training ground for indigenous leaders.

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Zapatistas (EZLN)
Cultural Survival
Popular Revolutionary Army 
Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE)
Coordination Indigena de la Cuenca Amazonica (COICA)
Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN)