Ancient America Time Line


Andean Region

30,000-8,000 BCE
-"stone age"
-highly mobile hunting and gathering groups in pursuit of large game Paleo-Indian
30,000-8000 BCE
8000-2000 BCE
-hunters & gatherers
-disappearance of large game leads to switch to small game, gathering, fishing, and beginnings of agriculture and village life Preceramic
8000-2000 BCE
or Pre-classic

2000-200 BCE
-improvements in agriculture, culture, and social structures
Valdivia (3500-1700 BCE)
-early ceramics
-fertility figurines

Initial Period
2000-800 BCE
Olmec (2000-400 BCE)
-beginnings of hieroglyphic writing & calendrics
-monolithic stone heads
Chavín (800-200 BCE)
-developments in art, ceramics, weavings
-feline cult
Early Horizon
800-200 BCE
-ideological expansion
200 BCE - 1000 CE
-emergence of cities, social stratification
-flowering of material culture
Maya (300-900 CE)
-high developments in astrology, calendrics, math, writing

Monte Albán (300-900 CE)
-architecture (city on high, large platform)

Paracas (200 BCE - 600 CE)
-weaving & mummy bundles

Nazca (200 BCE - 600 CE)
-Nazca lines

Moche (200 BCE - 600 CE)
-pottery with realistic painting

Early Intermediate Period
200 BCE - 600 CE
-regional diversity
Teotihuacán (450-750 CE)
-large urban center
-Pyramids of the Sun and Moon (theocratic)
Huari (600-800 CE)
-rise of large urban cities & empires

Tiwanaku (600-1000 CE)
-monolithic stone architecture

Middle Horizon
600-1000 CE
-commercial expansion
1000-1492 CE
-Urban, stratified, militarized, imperialistic
-no important technological advances
Toltecs (950-1150 CE)
-formation of militaristic empires, wars, invasions
-population increase & pressure

Cholula, Tarascan, Texcoco

Chimú (1000-1476 CE)
-very large city at Chan-chan with panaqa burial compounds

Chanca, Colla, Cañari, Pachacamac, Chincha

Late Intermediate Period
1000-1438 CE
-regional diversity
Mexicas (Aztecs) (1345-1521 CE)
-militaristic tribute empire
Tawantinsuyu (Inka) (1200-1532 CE)
-sophisticated and very efficient organizational and administrative structures
Late Horizon
1438-1532 CE
-political & military expansion

Marc Becker