En Español
November 2000


volume 1, number 1
November 2000

Editors: Jason Pribilsky, Kenny Kincaid, and Richard Quintero Andrade

The Ecuabulletin is the official E-newsletter of the Ecuadorian Studies section of the Latin American Studies Association (LASA). The newsletter is published once a month at the beginning of each calendar month.  The editors encourage the bulletin's readers to send along newsworthy items as they relate to Ecuador and request that all submissions follow the subsequent guidelines.  Material submitted for consideration should be well-written and concise (in English or Spanish).  Articles should be titled.  Information regarding events and/or deadlines should be relayed to the bulletin's e-mail address at least one month prior to the date announced.   Documents sent electronically to the editorship should be formatted in either Microsoft Word or Wordperfect and should be sent to the bulletin's clearinghouse ( ecua_bulletin@hotmail.com).     

El Ecuaboletín es el boletín oficial electrónico de la sección de los Ecuatorianistas de la Latin American Studies Association (LASA).  El boletín será publicado mensualmente al principio de cada mes.  El comité de redacción recomienda que los lectores del boletín envíen información apropiada y pide que los informes sigan las siguientes reglas.  Toda materia debe estar bien escrita y concisa (en Íngles o Español).  Los artículos deben tener título.  Información que se trata de un evento o de un plazo de entrega debe ser mandada con un mes de anticipación al comité de redacción antes de la fecha indicada.  Los documentos que serán mandados electronicamente a la redacción deben ser formateados en Microsoft Word o Wordperfect y deben ser mandados a la direción electrónica del boletín (ecua_bulletin@hotmail.com).




  • Useful websites
  • Archives in Ecuador




Message from the Chair

I am enormously pleased to announce the official debut of the Ecuador Boletín, the Ecuadorian Studies Section's official monthly electronic newsletter. For those of you new to the Section a bit of background seems in order: The Section's creation was the result of frustration by a number of Ecuadorianists who organized an extra-official roundtable at LASA 2000 to discuss the recent golpe (January 21st), the economic crisis and other pressing issues. The event was so well attended and productive that several of us simultaneously, and unbeknownst to each other, began petitioning LASA to form an official Ecuador Section. Once we united our efforts things began to move quickly and the "Ecuadorian Studies Section" was officially approved by the LASA Executive Council on June 29th of this year. We have accomplished a great deal in the intervening months: a top-notch web page has been created by Marc Becker; an invited panel was selected for LASA 2001; a letter protesting the possible use of fungal herbicides in the Oriente was drafted by Emma Cervone, signed by many Section members and sent to President Noboa; guidelines for a Section journal edited by Michael Hamerly have been submitted to LASA for approval; our listserv is overflowing with interesting exchanges; and now this e-bulletin is up and running thanks to Kenny Kincaid, Jason Pribilsky and Richard Quintero Andrade. Nevertheless, much work remains to be done and I encourage anyone with the time and interest to get involved. My electronic mailbox is always open for suggestions on how we can improve the Section and I look forward to hearing from and meeting more of you in the near future.

Muchos saludos,

Brian R. Selmeski
Chair, LASA Section on Ecuador

selmeski@ecnet.ec | brselmes@syr.edu

Message from the Secretary-Treasurer

 I want to make one more plug for updating your LASA membership as soon as possible. The 2001 membership forms are now available on the LASA website: http://lasa.international.pitt.edu In order to remain in good standing with the Section, your LASA membership will have to be current for the 2001 calendar year by January 1, 2001. At the same time that you either renew or become a member of LASA you will also need to pay your annual US$8 section dues. Consequences for not doing so will be severe! I am happy to report that the Section currently has a total of 138 members representing various disciplines and working in numerous countries. Most of our members are of course working either in Ecuador or the United States, but we also have members from Canada, England, Spain, Mexico, Peru, and Japan! Please help the Section continue to grow by spreading the word to other scholars and activists you know who are working on Ecuador.

Jennifer Collins is a Ph.D. candidate in Political Science at the University of California-San Diego. Her research focuses on social movement participation in formal electoral politics in Ecuador where she has focused on the Pachakutik movement. She is currently carrying out comparative research in Bolivia. She has lived and conducted research in Ecuador for over 5 years. If you should have any questions about membership, Jennifer can be contacted at: jncollin@weber.ucsd.edu.

Ecuadorian Studies Section Launches Web Page!

The Ecuadorian Studies Section of LASA has its own web page located at http://www.yachana.org/ecuatorianistas/. We plan to develop this site into a research tool for scholars, teachers, students, and others interested in Ecuador. In addition to our mission statement, addresses of our section officers, and instructions on how to subscribe to our email listserv, it includes other material which will be of interest to Ecuadorian scholars, including:

Member database.  We are assembling a database of members that includes contact information and areas of interest.  If you have not already done so, please fill out the form on the web page to be included in the database.  We hope in the future to develop this into a searchable database that can be used to locate other scholars who share similar interests.  If anyone has database programming skills and would like to volunteer time for this project, please contact us.

Essays.  Currently there are three essays on the web page.  Please let us know if you have an essay you would like to add to the web page for others to enjoy.  We also plan to publish the Ecuadorian Studies journal, as well as this newsletter, on the web page.  Hopefully the web page can be a useful tool for the creative exchange of ideas.

Bibliographies.  Currently we have two bibliographies of works on Ecuador on the web page.  Please let us know if you have a bibliography you would like to add to this section of the web page.  In the future we may look at developing a search engine which would facilitate retrieval of bibliographic data. This will make this web page a critical resource for Ecuadorian studies.

Events.  There is a small events calendar on the web page.  Please send us announcement of forthcoming events related to the mission of our section and we would be happy to add them.  This can also be a way for people to keep abreast of events related to Ecuador.

Links.  We are developing a page of annotated links to other websites on Ecuador.  Please let us know if you know of sites which you think should be added to this list or have annotations of websites you would like to add to this page.  We could also use help in organizing this page into a more user friendly format.

The web page continues to be under development.  In addition to the electronic publishing of our journal and newsletter, we also hope in the future to offer a Spanish (and maybe even Quichua!) version of the website.  If you have comments or suggestions for the web page or would like to volunteer to help work on it, please contact Marc Becker, our webmaster, at marc@yachana.org.  We encourage you to drop by and check it out!


  • A general note to those seeking to conduct research in Ecuador in the near-future: There have been considerable visa price hikes: The 12-VIII Cultural Visa that used to be issued gratis now costs $50. For those applying for the visa or an extension in Ecuador there is also now a $30 processing fee per person. Applicants should look into whether these costs apply to those visiting Ecuadorian consulates abroad or not.
  • The Archivo Libertador, containing numerous documents, proclamations, decrees, speeches and personal letters of Simón Bolívar was recently re-opened. The archive can be found and searched on-line at www.archivolibertador.org.
  • There is an on-line Ecuadorian Literature database available through the Escuela de Ciencias de Lenguaje y Literatura de la Universidad Central. It includes over 200 authors, 1000 titles, along with bibliographies and other useful resources. Access it at: www.literaturaecuatoriana.com
  • El IECE abre su servicio de Website en Internet en el que se podrá consultar acerca de la concesión de becas para estudios en el país y en el exterior. www.iece.fin.ec


  • La Asociacion de Ecuatorianistas, un grupo dedicado al estudio y difusion de la literatura ecuatoriana que se fundo en 1987, celebrara su decimo congreso en 2001 conjuntamente con SECOLAS en Vera Cruz (1-3 de marzo) y con Kentucky   Foreign Languages Conference en la Universidad de Kentucky (abril 2001).  Para mas informacion, favor de comunicarse con Michael Waag de Murray State University (mike.waag@murraystate.edu) o con Michael Handelsman de University of Tennessee (handelsman@utk.edu).
  • Call For Papers: International Conference headed by the Global Studies Institute at Lincoln University: March 21-24, 2001. Conference theme: "The Caribbean and Latin America in the 21st Century: Problems and Solutions. Suggested topics for panel presentation, round table discussions and plenary sessions include, but are not limited to: Diplomacy and the Changing Global Environment, Globalization, Sustainable Development and Democracy, International Transportation, Safety, and the Environment, "Sustainable" Sources of Energy, Privatization, International Trade and Development, The Global Impact of Drugs, AIDS/HIV, Poverty and Unemployment, The Role of Computers and Technology, Including Bio-Technology, The Role of Multinational Organizations and the International Monetary Fund, Race and Ethnicity, Religion, Cultural Trends. Abstracts are due on or before January 31- 2001. Registration is $125.00.To pre-register, please fax, mail, or e-mail your full name, address, and contact numbers to: Dr. Robert E. Millette, Director of The Global Studies Institute, Lincoln University, P.O. Box 179, Lincoln University, PA 19352; Phone: (610)932-8300, Ext. 3284 or 3546; Fax: (610)932-1880. E-mail: Millette@lu.lincoln.edu.
  • Call for panels, workshops, and papers: X Congreso del Foro Mundial de Latinoamericanistas y Caribilogos. Moscow, Russia: June 26-29, 2001. Conference theme: "El Aporte de Latinoamerica y el Caribe al Universo del Siglo XXII." For more information contact Agnel Rodriguez Alvarez (Puerto Rico). Tel: (787) 792-2821. E-mail: angelrod@rocketmail.com.
  • The Conference on Latin American History 2001 Annual Meeting. To be held from January 4-7, 2001 in Boston Mass. ILASSA 2001 Conference.  Monday, October 16th, was the deadline to submit an abstract for the 21st annual ILASSA Conference.  Information on the conference can be found at the ILASSA web page, which is located at:  www.lanic.utexas.edu/ilas/ILASSA
  • Indigenous Peoples: Cultural Diversity and Globalization. Lawrence, Kansas: November 10, 2000.  This conference's focus on the indigenous peoples of Latin America will provide a unique perspective in which a rich mosaic of native peoples and their lifeways exist amidst the homogenizing influences of the global economy, with Coca-Cola and e-commerce. These conditions have many parallels with the experience of US Native Americans. Latin America's indigenous peoples are struggling for control of their homelands, survival of their languages, and even their cultural practices and distinctive worldviews. At the same time, indigenous peoples are attracted by modern technology; they actively seek formal education, access to Western medicine, and opportunities for community development. Many live in tropical rain forests and other endangered habitats. In spite of many challenges, scholars and indigenous peoples are now working together around issues of diversity, conservation and community based development activities. The conference has two programs: one designed for K-12 teachers and community college faculty and one designed for the KU faculty, staff, students and public. For more information on the conference please visit our website (http://www.ukans.edu/~latamst/htmlfiles/conferences.shtml).


  • Internet Discussion Forum on (Anti)Corruption in Ecuador has been organized by the Comisiòn de Control Cìvico de la Corrupción. Those interested can sign-on to the free and open discussion by sending an email to: redcivica-request@lists.ecuanet.net.ec or get more information at www.ecuanex.net.ec.


  • Hemisphere, a magazine of the Americas, seeks articles for an upcoming issue on aging in Latin America and the Caribbean. Topics of interest include social security and health care reform and their impact on aging populations. Hemisphere welcomes articles from professors and graduate students. Articles should be no longer than 2,500 words, and should be submitted as a hard copy with diskette (Microsoft Word or Word Perfect) or via e-mail. Photos are accepted as black and whites or color prints, slides or high-resolution electronic images. Please include an address, phone number and/or e-mail address where you can be reached. Deadline for submission is December 1, 2000. Send articles and/or photos to: Alisa Newman, Managing Editor, Hemisphere Magazine; Latin American and Caribbean Center; Florida International University; University Park, DM 353; Miami, FL 33199; E-mail: newmana@fiu.edu; Tel: (305) 348-2894; Fax: (305) 348-3593.


  • SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY, Department of Anthropology, seeks an applied anthropologist for a tenure-track appointment at the assistant or associate professor level beginning Fall 2001. Specializations are open, but applied field experience in Latin America (including the Caribbean) or in South Asia is required. Preference will be given to candidates with completed PhD, excellence in teaching and professional publication, and who mesh with existing strengths in the Department and in the Maxwell School. Please send a cover letter that includes a statement of professional goals, research and teaching interests, a CV, and names of three references to Prof. Hans Buechler, Chair, Cultural Anthropology Search Committee, Anthropology Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse NY, 13244-1090. DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS IS DECEMBER 15, 2000, but early submissions are encouraged, and will be reviewed as they are received.  Preliminary interviews may be conducted at the AAA meeting in San Francisco in November 2000.  Syracuse University is an EO/AAE and prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, preference and gender identity/expression.
  • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY, Vice Chair, Center for Latin American Studies International and Area Studies. Salary range (commensurate with experience and qualifications); Academic Coordinator II:  $41,736-$57,948.  The University of California at Berkeley, Center for Latin American Studies, invites applications for a position as Vice Chair. Closing date December 6, 2000.  Starting date January 15, 2001(negotiable). A Vice Chair is expected to play an active part in and coordinate all aspects of the intellectual and programmatic activities of the Center, which include conferences and events, visiting scholars, faculty funding, tri-annual newsletter, Web site (http://www.clas.berkeley.edu/clas), working papers, and outreach. The Vice Chair works closely with the Chair of the Center, the Faculty affiliated with the Center and the Center staff. Responsibilities include initiating, writing, and supervising grant proposals and reports to university, government, foundation and private funding sources; hiring and general supervision of and coordination of Center administrative staff; and communication with the faculty executive committee. The successful applicant must show evidence of success at raising scholarly and academic funds from government agencies, foundations and /or private sources as well as administrative skill and experience.  Applicants are normally expected to have an advanced degree in a field relevant to the Center's program in Latin American Studies (PhD preferred) and must have advance competence in at least one of the major languages of the region. Excellent writing skills are essential. Applicants should submit a letter of application accompanied by a current curriculum vitae and reprints or copies of relevant scholarly or professional writing, and send three names and address of reference to:
  • Harley Shaiken, Chair, Center for Latin American Studies,University of California, Berkeley, 2334 Bowditch Street, Berkeley, California 94720-2312 The University of California is an equal opportunity affirmative action employer.

  • University of Texas at Austin, Social Department of Anthropology-Anthropology of Latin America, and/or the Caribbean. The University of Texas at Austin, the Dept of Anth invites applications for an anticipated pos at the level of either Associate Prof or Assistant Prof to begin Sept 2001. Applicants must hold a PhD or be ABD with a reasonable expectation of completion by Aug 2001, & must have an outstanding record of social anthropological res in Latin America and/or the Caribbean. Theoretical specialization is open, but particular consideration will be given to candidates whose work complements 1/more of the following strengths within the dept: gender relations & feminist theory; racial formation & race/ethnic politics; history, its construction & uses; nationalism, governance, & subaltern political movements. The dept also has established progs in the anth of the African Diaspora & the Mexican-American Borderlands, as well as an interest in methods of activist res that combine theoretical sophistication, reflexivity, & pol engagement. Responsibilities include both grad & undergrad teaching, as well as res. Applicants must be able to demonstrate not only a high level of res productivity but also excellent teaching skills. Rank & sal will be determined according to accomplishments & exp. Please send a letter of application, a vita, & the names of 3 referees by Nov 1, 2000 to the Chair, Latin American Search Comm, Dept of Anth, UTA, Austin, TX 78712-1086. EOE/AAE. This employer does not offer employment benefits to domestic partners of employees. This employer prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation/preference and gender identity/expresioin.


The Inauguration of la Universidad Intercultural de Nacionalidades y Pueblos Indígenas del Ecuador, Amautai Wasi

La Universidad Intercultural de Nacionalidades y Pueblos Indígenas was inaugurated on October 12, 2000, in the auditorium of CIESPAL in Quito, Ecuador.  The culmination of several years of work and planning on the part of Luis Macas, and many collaborators, the two day event included a day long symposium on the meaning of the 1990 Levantamiento Indígena of Inti Raymi  - on its 10th anniversary, sponsored by the Instituto Cientifico de Culturas Indígenas, ICCI,  the Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, ILDIS-FES and the Confederación de Nacionalidades y Pueblos Indígenas del Ecuador, CONAIE.

Participants and persons who attended represented a vast spectrum of organizations, parties, positions and regions.   Four persons from the U.S. who attended were formally acknowledged:  Rosalie Little Thunder, a Latkota woman who chairs the Seventh Generation Fund Board which has provided some funding for ICCI,  Ray Williams, Director of Native American Affairs for the Seattle Archdiocese and Seventh Generation Board member, Adriana Ballén, president of  the Community Consulting Network based in Chicago, and I, Linda Belote, professor of anthropology, representing the University of Minnesota Duluth.  Adriana and I served as the translators for Rosalie and Ray throughout much of the event, which meant that I could not take notes, but I did listen very carefully to the presentations!

The Examination of the Levantamiento Indígena 10 Years Later was opened by Hans-Ulrich Bunger, Director of ILDIS-FES, with Pedro Ushiña from ICCI as discussant.  The first set of panelists addressed the historical significance of the indigenous uprising of Inti Raymi, 1990-2000.  The speakers included Gonzalo Ortiz, a former minister from the government of Rodrigo Borja, Alberto Luna Tobar, monseñor of Cuenca, retired General José Gallardo, former Minister of Defense,  Leonardo Viteri, Director of the Amazon Institute of Science and Technology "Amazanga" and Luis Macas, Director of ICCI,  former president of Conaie, and former congressman.  Each speaker traced the origins of the Levantamiento: one back to 1533, another to Rumiñahui, another back to the Ley de las Comunas (1940s) and still another to the bilingual education program established during the presidency of Roldos.  There was strong agreement that the uprising represented a wake up call to the country to the presence and needs of the country's  indigenous peoples. The panel was followed up by a group of Ecuadorian writers who discussed the topic "Civil Society's Perceptions of the Indigenous Movement."  The writers included Alejandro Moreano, university professor and writer for Hoy, Fabian Corral, columnist for El Comercio, Javier Ponce, writer for Hoy,  Luz Maria De la Torre, a teacher from Otavalo and Napoleon Saltos, former congressman from the Pachakutik party. 

The afternoon session proved to be the most volatile with a session on  "The Indigenous Movement and Political Reform of the State" with Antonio Vargas, president of Conaie, Pedro De la Cruz, president of Federación Nacional de Organizaciones Campesinas Indigenas, FENOCIN, Jorge Loor, president of Campesino Social Security, Vicenta Chuma, ECUARUNARI representative, and Marco Murillo, president of the Federación de Indígenas Evangelicos, FEINE.  The session brought together a meeting of unlike minds who have historically been in conflict with one another over the direction of the Indigenous Movement. The fact that the speakers ultimately spoke in unison of a "agenda común" was noteworthy, and caught the attention of the audience in a way that the morning's talks had not.  A period open for questions from the floor followed each of the morning sessions, though in each case the questions were slow in coming forth, and the few who chose to speak appeared to be expounding on their own opinions, rather than soliciting further ideas from the panels.  Not so of the afternoon session that featured a panel of indigenous leaders. Among them was José María Vacacela who accused indigenous organizations of having lost contact with their "bases" and asked them to identify their solutions to the serious problems confronting the indigenous peoples of Ecuador, rather than talking in platitudes.  When the panelists began to restate these same platitudes the moderator broke in and asked them to answer the question.  But no one really did.  Antonio Vargas was clear that the national problems are societal in nature, and that the indigenous organizations can identify poverty, health, education and social needs, but the entire country of Ecuador must be brought into the solution.  

The evening session raised questions about the future of indigenous groups and organizing through a discussion of young indigenous leaders.  The session, entitled "Imaginarios de país en el movimiento indígena" featured thoughts by Auki Tituaña, mayor (alcalde) of Cotacachi, Imbabura; Gilberto Talahua, congressman from the Pachakutik party, Lourdes Tiban, from Cotopaxi, Humberto Cholango and José Atupaña.  Together, these youthful leaders spoke eloquently and passionately about their visions for the society they are working to create.

El Comercio reported the following day that the goal of the examination of the 1990 Uprising was to generate a sustained program of scientific investigation of the Indigenous Movement.  Bringing together such a great variety of points of view was certainly an effective beginning for such an analysis.

On the following day, the inauguration of UINPI began with a ritual led by a yachak from Cayambe.  The CIESPAL auditorium was packed with peoples from all regions of Ecuador, indigenous and non-indigenous, with a special welcome extended to the Huaorani present.  The formal ceremony opened with the singing of the Ecuadorian  National Anthem in Quichua followed by a welcome from Estuardo Remache, president of Ecuarunari.  Antonio Vargas, president of CONAIE formally installed Dr. Luis Macas as Rector of  UINPI who then served as the moderator of the rest of the inauguration activities.  Dignitaries who spoke or participated included Ing. Gabriel Galarza, rector of the University of Bolivar in Guaranda and representative of the Consejo Nacional de Educación Superior (CONESUP), the organization which will be involved in recommending congressional approval for the creation of UINPI; Leonel Cerruto, representative from TINKU, a network linking indigenous organizations and intercultural universities in the Amazonian-Andean regions of Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador (Leonel also established an office in Quito for closer affiliation with Ecuadorian universities this same weekend), Rosalie Little Thunder of the Seventh Generation Fund, Mikel Berraondo López from the Universidad de Deusto (Bilbao) Spain, who together with Luis Macas signed an agreement of collaboration between his institution and UINPI; Luis Maldonado, executive secretary of the Consejo de Desarrollo de las Nacionalidades y Pueblos del Ecuador (CODENPE), and Ricardo Ulcuango, vice-president of Conaie.  For my part, I presented a letter of intent for collaboration between the University of Minnesota-Duluth and UINPI.  Luis Macas announced that he had received several of these from persons affiliated with universities in the United States who were unable to attend.  The inauguration culminated in the formal "launching" of UINPI's first publication, a book  entitled El Idioma del Pueblo Puqina by P. Federico Aguiló. 

Since the latest ICCI boletin thoroughly covers the philosophy and objectives of UINPI and is available to everyone on the web at icci.nativeweb.org, I will not try to summarize any of these points.  Suffice it to say that the Universidad Intercultural , Amautai Wasi is already functioning.  There are 150 students currently enrolled  in the one discipline which has begun courses:  Derechos Humanos (Human Rights) at a Conocoto location.  There are plans for other branch campuses in Cotopaxi, Puyo and on the coast, possibly in Guayaquil. Overall, there was an incredible amount of good will in the room and a certain positive energy was generated.  Luis Macas has clearly assumed a new and important leadership role, and the people in attendance responded very positively to this.


Kleymeyer, Charles David. Padre Sol, Madre Luna - Inti Taita, Killa Mama - Father Sun, Mother Moon: Cuentos del desarrollo de base pluricultural. Quito, Ecuador: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 2000. 130 p.

Reviewed by Marc Becker, Truman State University (marc@yachana.org)

Most Ecuatorianistas will be familiar with Chuck (or Carlos) Kleymeyer's work.  For twenty years, he has worked in Ecuador as the Field Representative for the Inter-American Foundation, and before that he worked as a development professional in the Andes.  Out of this experience, Kleymeyer has published significant contributions to the social science literature on issues of grassroots development.

This book is a significant departure from the standard social science genre.  Drawing on a college degree in creative writing, Kleymeyer shaped events that he experienced and observed in Ecuador into fascinating short stories which probe the depths of human experiences in ways that difficult to accomplish through standard social science methodologies.  The stories describe and analyze issues of racism, ethnicity, poverty, and liberation struggles while at the same time giving rich ethnographic descriptions of Ecuadorian cultures.  The result will be of interest to anyone concerned with development issues in Ecuador and more broadly in the third world.

The book contains four stories, interspersed with a "yapita" of riddles and poems from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, organized into a tri-lingual (Spanish, Quichua, English) format.  The first (and longest) story, "'You're Anselmo Chumbi? ... Yes.' From words to silence," is a moving fictionalized account of a highland community leader who leads a land struggle.  Similar to Alberto Muehala's short film "Mashikuna," this story describes a motivated and capable activist who makes the ultimate sacrifice in the struggle to improve peoples' lives in his community.  Some readers may find the geographic rearrangements (such as placing Yawarcocha by La Naríz del Diablo, which Kleymeyer acknowledges he intentionally did as part of his literary license) a bit disconcerting, but this is the very compelling story and I would highly recommend reading it.

The second story, "Power of the Grassroots," describes the struggle of former huasipungo workers on the Llinllín hacienda to claim its natural resources for themselves.  Kleymeyer recounts the Indians' non-violent struggle to take over the hacienda, and the role that women played in this process.  This is a story of empowerment in which the community members successfully organized to improve their lives.

The third story, "Life or Dignity: Dreams of 'The Bull,'" comes from the Esmeraldas province on the northern Ecuadorian coast.  With increased water pollution from boat motors, overfishing from commercial fishing boats, and the destruction of mangrove swamps to develop commercial shrimp farming, local residents were forced to go further and further out to sea to bring back their evening meal.  This is a story of an Afro-Ecuadorian fisher named "El Toro" who died fishing rather than give up his dignity.  His death was not in vane as it triggered community organizations, including establishment of a mangrove preserve which they called "Sueños de El Toro."

The final short story in this collection, "Circular Rainbow - Pluricultural Society," begins at the First Amazonian Folklore Festival in Rucullacta in 1981.  It traces the influence of this event on Indigenous, mestizo, and Afro-Ecuadorian cultural activists, and how it eventually led to the "Intercultural Encounter: From Identity to Plurinational Development" in Quito in 1996.  A theme of this story, and one that runs throughout the entire book, is the multicultural nature of Ecuadorian society.  In this and the other stories, Kleymeyer provides accounts of people working together successfully to build a better society.

This book could also be easily adapted for classroom use in undergraduate courses in literature, development studies, anthropology, and related fields.  It is laid out with translations of all three languages (Spanish, Quichua, English) appearing on the same page which provides additional possibilities for language study.  People can attempt to read the stories in a language with which they are less familiar and check their comprehension against one of the other languages.  In Ecuador, this will be a useful text for intercultural education classes and consciousness-raising workshops.  This is an entertaining and accessible book which all Ecuatorianistas will want to read.