Estudios historiográficos y relacionados



Vol. I





This section is given over to published materials having to do with the study and teaching of the Humanities and the Social Sciences in Ecuador as well as historiographical studies per se. Only a few books and articles on the study and teaching of the Humanities appear because there do not seem to have been more than a handful published before 1996. Apparently this is because the Humanities, with the notable exception of Literature, did not attract nearly as much attention in Ecuador as History and the Social Sciences, at least not during the last third of the twentieth century.

Interestingly enough national historiography did not generate all that much in the way of publications either. There were many studies, however, of Ecuadorian historians, mostly biographical in nature. Until the 1970s, history in Ecuador was dominated by self-taught men of letters who were usually also men of action. Scholars of the late-twentieth century, mostly professionally trained, were often actively involved in politics too. Therefore almost all Ecuadorian writers of history have also been makers of history. Hence it is not surprising that not only have traditional Ecuadorian historians largely concerned themselves with persons and politics, but that the majority of writer-makers of history, including the professionally trained, should in turn be the subject of numerous biographies. Post-1974 lives of the writer-makers of history are cited below under "Biographies" as are older works of continuing importance. For a more complete listing of pre-1975 studies of Ecuadorian historians see Norris's Guía bibliográfica (item 150), p. 14-26.

The best survey of the traditional historiography of Ecuador was Adam Szászdi's 1964 article, now available in Spanish as well as in the original English (item 288). The best introduction to the "new" history, on the other hand, was Jorge Núñez Sánchez's 1994 La historiografía ecuatoriana (item 265). Núñez Sánchez's study is primarily concerned with the nature of history and the difficulty of being a historian in Ecuador in the late-twentieth century. His discussion of "la institucionalidad existente" is especially informative and enlightening.

The only comprehensive review of recent work on the colonial period was Rosemarie Terán's contribution to the 1993 Congreso Ecuatoriano de Historia (item 291), but see also Christiana Borchart de Moreno and Segundo E. Moreno Yánez's outstanding analysis of the "new" historiography on the eighteenth century (item 208). On the national period see Juan J. Paz y Miño Cepeda's contribution to the 1993 Congreso (item 270). On historiographic developments of the first half of the twentieth century, see item 2421.

Another study of some importance is Jeffrey Klaiber's "Estudios recientes sobre la Iglesia en Perú, Bolivia y Ecuador: un balance historiográfico," Histórica (Lima), 19:2, dic. 1995, p. 251-280. N.B. Klaiber includes studies of the history of Protestantism in the central Andean republics. Two other articles of interest are: Heraclio Bonilla's "Progresos y dilemas de la historiografía en el Ecuador: primera parte," Nariz del diablo, 16 (1990)--not yet seen by me--and Víctor Peralta Ruiz's "La historia en el Ecuador (1980-1990)" (item 272). Professionally trained scholars, Bonilla and Peralta Ruiz are Peruvians and therefore bring a somewhat different perspective to bear. Peralta Ruiz, for example, examines "recent" historiographical developments from the vantage of "lo andino"--a more appropriate paradigm than the in vogue at the time dependency model--and from that of a country where History at a discipline is more strongly rooted.

Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia (1991-) (item 491) has begun and hopefully will continue to revolutionize the study of history as a discipline in Ecuador. Six of the first ten issues of Procesos (i.e., nos. 1, 2, 5, 7, 9, and 10) include a critical review essay, beginning with no. 1, or an historiographic essay, beginning with no. 2 (see item 228). In additions to the studies listed below, see Jorge Cañizares, "Aportes historiográficos de la obra de Eduardo Estrella," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 10 (I sem. 1997), 123-129.

201. Alvarez , Silvia G. "Una década de arqueología en la ESPOL," Cuadernos del río, 4/5 (sept. 1993), 22-39.

Delineates and evaluates the activities of the Escuela Técnica de Arqueología of the Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral in Guayaquil (founded in 1980) during its first ten years, especially under the leadership of Jorge G. Marcos. See also items 280 and 324.

Reprinted in item 810.

202. Astudillo Espinosa, Celín. "El deán Juan Félix Proaño, científico, historiador y guerrillero," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 62:133/134 (ene./dic. 1979), 105-154.

A more or less useful source of information on the career and publications of Juan Félix Proaño (1850-1938), a riobambeño, a priest, a Conservative, a combatant in the 1895-1899 campaigns, the founder and editor of Dios y patria (1923), a self-taught paleontologist and antiquarian, and a staunch defender of Juan de Velasco. Apparently most, of not all, of Proaño's studies appeared as newspaper articles.

See also Carlos Freile Granizo's "Juan de Velasco: apuntes sobre una incomprensión," Revista del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Genealógicas y Antropológicas, 12:11 (jul. 1993), 19-36, a reevaluation of the Historia del reino de Quito, especially of Velasco's reliance on oral tradition and his thesis that there existed a Kingdom of Quito prior to the Inca and Spanish conquests. Includes a presentation and discussion of a heretofore unknown portion of the early-twentieth-century polemic between Jijón y Caamaño, the most important of Ecuador's first field archaeologists, an avid critic of Velasco, and Proaño, nominally one of the country's first scientific historians, an equally avid defender of Velasco.

203. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Historia, compromiso y política: ensayos sobre historiografía ecuatoriana, 1¬ ed. Quito: Planeta, 1989. 114 p.

An anthology of essays, all of which had been previously published, on major works of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Ecuadorian historians.

204. Barnadas, Josep María. "El P. Mario Cicalá (1718-?) y su obra," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 49:107 (ene./jun. 1966), 93-105.

Cicalá was the author of a major, late colonial period Descrizione istorio-fisica della provincia del Quito (1771), for the particulars of the long delayed publication of which see item 7248.

205. Barrera, Isaac J. Federico González Suárez; Pedro Fermín Cevallos. México: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia, 1968. 71 p.

Adds nothing to the following item (206).

206. Barrera, Isaac J. Historiografía del Ecuador. México: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia, 1956. 124 p.

An adulatory survey of the traditional historians Juan de Velasco, Pedro Fermín Cevallos, Federico González Suárez, and Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño.

207. Bedoya Maruri, Angel Nicanor. "El desarrollo del estudio de la arqueología en el Ecuador a partir de González Suárez," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:126 (jul./dic. 1975), 191-200.

A detailed, highly factual review.

208. Borchart de Moreno, Christiana; and Segundo E. Moreno Yánez. "La historia socio-económica ecuatoriana del siglo XVIII," Revista de Indias, 49:186 (mayo/ago. 1989), 379-409.

A solid review of the then mostly "new" literature, almost all of which dated from the 1970s and 1980s, on the demographic, economic, and social history of the eighteenth century.

Also published as: Balance y tendencias de la historia socio-económica ecuatoriana, siglo XVIII. Quito: FLACSO, 1990. 50 p. See also items 270 and 291.

209. Bravo, Julián G. "Contribución del humanista P. Aurelio Espinosa Pólit a la historiografía ecuatoriana," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 66:141/142 (ene./dic. 1983), 132-160.

A somewhat informative but hardly unbiased and far from complete review of Espinosa Pólit's major contributions to Ecuadorian letters.

210. Bravo, Julián G. "La Iglesia ecuatoriana y las relaciones con el Estado durante el gobierno de García Moreno, 1859-1863, por William M. King, S.I.," Revista, Instituto de Historia Eclesiástica Ecuatoriana, 2 (1976), 71-78.

A critical review of King's doctoral dissertation (item 5262).

211. Brubaker, George A. "Federico González Suárez, Historian of Ecuador," Journal of Inter-American Affairs, 5:2 (Apr. 1963), 235-248.

An objective evaluation of the archbishop-historian's historical studies.

Also published in Spanish as: "Federico González Suárez, historiador del Ecuador," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 51:112 (jul./dic. 1968), 258-267.

212. Caillavet, Chantal. "Investigaciones en etnohistoria de Ecuador," Revista andina, 2:3 (jul. 1984), 163-167.

Makes several enduring points. 1) Although archival research in the country has become easier to do than it used to be, it still takes for more time and patience than it should. 2) Primary sources may not be as complete or extensive as for the more important colonies of New Spain and the Perus. [Nonetheless, more and more sources turn up as more and more research is undertaken.] 3) Too many scholars have relied on Juan de Velasco's Historia del Reino de Quito (items 540 and 1532), accepting it as an accurate, detailed chronicle instead of recognizing it as an expression of proto-nationalism and therefore insofar as the prehispanic period is concerned, a fable. 4) Almost all of the ethnohistorical research done, not just as of 1984 but also as of 1997, has been of the highlands.

213. Carpio Vintimilla, Julio. "┐Por qué no investiga la universidad ecuatoriana?," Revista del IDIS, 10 (feb. 1982), 107-131.

Examines and explicates the limited research that was being done in national universities in the 1970s and early 1980s. Attributes lack of research to the emphasis on preparation of practitioners, the lack of communication between universities and society, the lack of definition of mission, and the lack of support for research. See also item 237.

214. Cevallos García, Gabriel. "Algunos hechos y dos nombres en la historiografía azuaya," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 48 (1983), 81-115.

An appreciation of the oeuvre of Víctor Manuel Albornoz and José María Vargas.

215. Cevallos García, Gabriel. "Panorama del pensamiento histórico en el Ecuador, del siglo XVI al siglo XIX: (fragmento)," Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca, 19:3/4 (jul./dic. 1963), 431-460.

A precis of item 216.

Reprinted in the author's Temas históricos ecuatorianos (item 217).

216. Cevallos García, Gabriel. Reflexiones sobre la historia del Ecuador. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1957-1960. 2 v.

Consists of insightful reflections on the traditional historiography, especially on the histories of Juan de Velasco, Pedro Fermín Cevallos, and Federico González Suárez, as well as on the history of Ecuador, by a leading historian of ideas and philosopher of history.

Reprinted with an introductory study by José María Vargas: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1987. 2 v. (Biblioteca básica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 35-36) Also: Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1988. (Obras completas, Gabriel Cevallos García; 4-5)

217. Cevallos García, Gabriel. Temas históricos ecuatorianos. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1987. 2 v. (Obras completas, Gabriel Cevallos García; 1-2)

An anthology of previously published essays on various aspects of the historiography and history of the country.

Contents: vol. 1, "Para entender bién al Ecuador" (1957); "Panorama del pensamiento histórico del Ecuador del siglo XVI al siglo XIX" (1963); "Programa de historia de la cultura ecuatoriana" (1964); "Historiadores ecuatorianos: Juan de Velasco" (1958); "Juan de Velasco e Iñigo Abad y La Sierra" (1970); "Teoría del hombre-pueblo" (1944); "La Audiencia de Quito: colofón de una guerra de cien años" (1966). Vol. 2, "El diez de agosto y nosotros" (1959); "García Moreno ┐conservador?" (1940); "Por un García Moreno de cuerpo entero" (1978); "El concordato Garciano" (1976); "Borrero y Veintemilla" (1980); "La era del Progresismo" (1980); "Alfaro y su época" (1980); "La ideas liberales en el Ecuador" (1960).

218. Collier, Donald. "One Hundred Years of Ecuadorian Archaeology," Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropológicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 5-37.

A survey of developments by one of the pioneers of modern archaeological studies of Ecuador.

219. Contreras C., Carlos. "Balance de la historia económica del Ecuador," HISLA, 5 (1985), 127-134.

220. Cordero de Espinosa, Susana. "Panorama de los estudios críticos sobre la obra de Juan Montalvo," Cultura, 5:12 (ene./mar. 1982), 15-93.

221. Crespo Toral, Remigio. "La conciencia nacional: estudio crítico de los historiadores ecuatorianos," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 1 (ene. 1921), 73-96.

One of the earliest attempts to establish and evaluate the history of history in/of Ecuador. Still worth reading.

Reprinted in the author's La conciencia nacional y otros estudios sobre historia (item 1923), p. 31-66.

222. De la Torre Espinosa, Carlos. "Región, clase y discurso: análisis crítico de varias obras recientes sobre el proceso social y político ecuatoriano entre 1930 y 1950," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 4 (I sem. 1993), 103-115.

A critical review of almost all, if not all, of the then "recent" studies on the 1930s and 1940s.

223. Drekonja, Gerhard. "Ecuador, ensayo bibliográfico," Ecuador hoy (item 2730), p. 283-313.

More of a historiographic than a bibliographic essay. Objective and perspicacious.

224. Duranti, Reginaldo. La veracidad del Sr. Dr. Federico González Suárez en orden a ciertos hechos referidos en el tomo IV de su Historia general. Quito: Impr. de Santo Domingo, 1894. 48 p.

A coeval reaction to the archbishop-historian's exposé of the scandalous behavior of some members of the clergy in the capital in the 1700s.

225. Espinoza, Leonardo. "La investigación histórica en el Ecuador," Revista del IDIS., 11 (mayo 1982), 19-26.

See also Espinoza's "Perspectivas de la investigación histórica ecuatoriana: siglos XIX y XX," Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 277-285.

226. Espinoza Soriano, Waldemar. "Etnohistoria Carengue y Cayambe: lo investigado y lo que falta investigar," Boletín de Lima, 9:49 (ene. 1987), 89-95.

Reviews recent ethnohistorical research on ethnic groups of prehispanic Ecuador and delineates that which as of the late 1980s, remained to be done in Espinoza's opinion.

227. Estrella Vintimilla, Pablo. Una década de investigación social en la Universidad de Cuenca, 1¬ ed. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1985. 96 p.

Reports on the activities of the Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales.

228. Fernández Rueda, Sonia. "Historiografía de la arquitectura en la época colonial: algunas consideraciones," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 2 (I sem. 1992), 105-117.

A brief review of studies of the history of architecture during the colonial period. Emphasizes the contributions of José Gabriel Navarro and José María Vargas.

229. Flor M., Felix. "Por los campos de la biografía ecuatoriana," Revista, Casa de la Cultura, Núcleo del Chimborazo, 2:3 (nov. 1954), 43-56.

230. Flor Vásconez, José Joaquín. "El historiador franco-ecuatoriano J.M. Le Gouhir," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 68:145/146 (ene./dic. 1985), 202-244.

231. Flor Vásconez, José Joaquín. El historiador Luis Robalino Dávila. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1975. 32 p.

232. Gómez E., Nelson. "Los estudios regionales en el Ecuador," Memorias del V Congreso Nacional de Historia y Geografía del Ecuador (item 559), p. 23-34.

233. González Suárez, Federico. Defensa de mi criterio histórico. Quito: Archivo Municipal, 1937. vi, 284 p. (Publicaciones del Archivo Municipal; 12)

Published posthumously. Written in 1913.

234. González Suárez, Federico. "El escribano Ascaray," Boletín eclesiástico (Quito), 16:14 (15 jul. 1909), 527-545.

Juan de Ascaray (b.1743) was one of the earliest chroniclers of the Presidency of Quito (see items 1348, 1349, 4962, and 6934).

235. Granata, Massimo. "L'intransigentismo cattolico ed il mito di García Moreno," Bollettino dell'Archivio per la Storia del Movimento Sociale Cattolico in Italia, 19:1 (1984), 49-77.

A critical review of the posthumous mythification of García Moreno by conservative Catholics.

236. Guerra Bravo, Samuel M. "Apuntes para una crítica a los estudios sobre Eugenio Espejo, 1796-1976," Quitumbe, 4:4 1976), 59-83.

A dispassionate review of the mostly passionate studies of the philosophe and precursor, from Pablo Herrera's Ensayo sobre la historia de la literatura ecuatoriana (item 4647) through Ekkehart Keeding's "Espejo y las banderitas de Quito de 1.794" (item 4355). See also item 3200.

237. Hernández, Mercedes A. de; and Gaitán Villavicencio. Diagnóstico intencionado sobre la situación de la investigación científico-técnica en la Universidad de Guayaquil. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Departamento de Planificación Universitaria, 1986. 177, [63] p.

238. Historiografía ecuatoriana, estudio introductorio y selección, Rodolfo Agoglia. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1985. 564 p. (Biblioteca básica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 25)

Exemplifies and delineates the state of historiography in Ecuador, as of the mid-1980s, through the reproduction of representative texts by national authors and introductory comments by Agoglia.

239. Idrovo Urigüen, Jaime. "Panorama histórico de la arqueología ecuatoriana," Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Sección del Azuay, 8 (1989), 9-107.

A solid survey of the history of archaeology in and on Ecuador.

240. La Investigación económica en el Ecuador, Germánico Salgado [et al.], 1¬ ed. Quito: ILDIS, 1989. 469 p.

A comprehensive listing and analysis of economic research in Ecuador during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s.

241. La Investigación socio-económica en el Ecuador: reflexiones acerca del método, selección de textos e introducción, Fernando Rosero Garcés. Quito: Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Facultad de Economía, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1982. 162 p.

242. Jerves, Alfonso María. "Historia general de la República del Ecuador: (observaciones histórico-críticas)," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 5:17 (dic. 1930), 140-160; 5:18 (abr. 1931), 140-160; 5:19 (jun. 1931), 213-236; 5:20 (ago. 1931), 325-342; 6:21 (nov. 1931), 36-64; 6:22 (ene. 1932), 132-162; 6:23 (mar. 1932), 214-229.

Continued in: Oriente dominicano, 9:40 (ene./feb. 1936), 174-176; 9:41 (mar./abr. 1936), 209-212; 9:42 (mayo/jun. 1936), 250-252; 9:43/44 (jul./oct. 1936), 312-314.

Glosses and critiques González Suárez's Historia general (item 1388).

243. Jijón y Caamaño, Jacinto. "Examen crítico de la veracidad de la Historia del Reino de Quito del P. Juan de Velasco de la Compañía de Jesús," Boletín de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Históricos Americanos, 1:1 (jun./jul. 1918), 33-63.

As anti and vehement yet at the same time as well founded a rejection of Velasco's prehispanic Kingdom of Quito as one is likely to find in the literature. "Es la historia de los shyris fábula perniciosa que urge borrar de todo libro serio ..." (p. 62).

244. Jiménez, Nicolás. "La biografía en el Ecuador," América (Quito), 10:60/61 (1935), 152-164.

A discourse on the role of biography in national letters. Stresses the importance of "great men" and the need to write up their exemplary lives. Jiménez was not altogether an ingenue, however. According to him, Ecuador has had only a handful of "great men." Exemplifies the mentality and approach of all too many of the country's biographers.

Reprinted in: Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 19:55 (ene./jun. 1940), 109-124.

245. Kennedy Troya, Alexandra. "Archivos eclesiásticos e historia del arte ecuatoriano aplicada: el caso del Convento de Santo Domingo de Quito," Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Sección del Azuay, 9 (1992), 9-25.

A cogent review of the historiography of art history of/in Ecuador as well as a report on the author's activities and efforts to make a go of it as an art historian.

246. Landázuri Camacho, Carlos. "La historiografía ecuatoriana: (una apretada visión de conjunto)," Quitumbe, 6 (1987), 57-69.

A sketchy but nonetheless insightful review of the historiography of Ecuador from the chroniclers of the conquest through the cultivators of the "new" history.

247. Landázuri Camacho, Carlos; Cristóbal Landázuri N.; and Guadalupe Soasti. "Tres comentarios a la Historia demográfica y económica de la Audiencia de Quito de Robson B. Tyrer," Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 4:7 (1990), 283-296.

An extended review of Tyrer's Historia demográfica y económica (item 5427). Evaluates and partially updates Tyrer's findings in accordance with subsequent research.

248. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Las biografías de Santa Mariana de Jesús. Quito: Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1970. 172 p.

Analyzes biographical studies and hagiographies of the "Azucena de Quito." Includes a summary of the life of the saint and a chapter on "Fuentes para las biografías de Mariana de Jesús: los procesos."

249. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "Introducción y notas a la Relación de Miguel de Estete, sobre el descubrimiento y la conquista del Perú," Boletín de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Históricos Americanos, 1:3 (oct./dic. 1918), 300-350.

The introduction to Estete's El descubrimiento y conquista del Perú published for the first time by Larrea in Quito a year later (1919) in what Means (in item 258) describes as "a splendid edition, in transcript and in facsimile, with important introductory material and terminal [i.e., end] notes, of the 1535 Ms."

250. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "El padre Juan de Velasco y su Historia del Reino de Quito," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 5-23.

A useful biobibliography and a more or less objective assessment of Ecuador's first historian.

251. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "Reseña sintética del desarrollo de los estudios etnológicos en el Ecuador," Boletín de investigaciones científicas nacionales (Quito), 6:56 (1953), 159-167.

A brief history of ethnographic and archaeological studies in the country through 1951. Reprinted in item 599.

252. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Tres historiadores: Velasco, González Suárez, Jijón y Caamaño, prólogo de Jorge Salvador Lara. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión," 1988. 322 p.

A posthumous collection of Larrea's biobibliographical studies of Father Velasco, of the archbishop-historian (González Suárez), and of the first field archaeologist in Ecuador (Jijón y Caamaño).

253. López-Ocón Cabrera, Leoncio. "Las actividades americanistas del naturalista español Marcos Jiménez de la Espada," La Ciencia española en ultramar: actas de las I Jornadas sobre España y las expediciones científicas en América y Filipinas (Madrid: Doce Calles, 1991), p. 362-380.

An appreciation of the life and oeuvre of the compiler and editor of the classic Relaciones geográficas de Indias: Perú (item 1406). See also López-Ocón's 1990 doctoral thesis De viajero naturalista a historiador: las actividades americanistas del científico español Marcos Jiménez de la Espada (1831-1898). Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

254. Maiguashca, Juan. "Breves apuntes sobre la historia económica en el Ecuador," Historia económica en América Latina, 1¬ ed. (México: SepSetentas, 1972), vol. 1, p. 142-162.

A pioneering examination of the status of economic historiography in Ecuador, barely nascent at the time Maiguashca wrote this essay. See also item 132.

Reprinted (but not updated) as: "Breves apuntes sobre la situación de la historia económica en el Ecuador," Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 1:2 (1977), 93-105.

255. Márquez, Ezequiel. "Historia del Ecuador," Gaceta municipal (Quito), 19:79 (oct./dic. 1934), 207-225.

Reports on author's work as a member of the commission formed by an act of Congress in 1921 to prepare an "official," revised, and up-to-date edition--not that one ever was--of Pedro Fermín Cevallos's Resumen de la historia del Ecuador (item 553).

256. Martínez Borrero, Juan. "La investigación de la cultura popular en el Ecuador," Artesanías de América, 20/21 (abr. 1986), 21-40.

257. Mayor López, Carlos. La obra lexicográfica de Antonio de Alcedo (1735-1812). 1991. 295 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--State University of New York, Albany.

258. Means, Philip Ainsworth. "Biblioteca Andina: Essays on the Lives and Works of the Chroniclers, or, The Writers of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Who Treated of the Prehispanic History and Culture of the Andean Countries," Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 29 (May 1928), 271-525.

Has long since become a classic. Although dated insofar as more recent versions of the chroniclers are concerned, still very much worth consulting inasmuch as Means was a perspicacious commentator.

Reprinted as a book under the same title with the same pagination: Detroit: Blaine Ethridge, 1973.

259. Merino, Luis. "The Relation between the Noticias secretas and the Viaje a la América meridional," The Americas: a Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 13:2 (Oct. 1956), 111-125.

A critical analysis of Juan and Ulloa's Relación histórica del viaje a la América Meridional (item 7382) and their Noticias secretas de América (item 7330), the authorship of both of which Merino attributes entirely to Ulloa and of the extent to which either work may be said to have been based on personal observation. N.B. Merino maintains that the 1826 edition of the Noticias secretas is faithful to the manuscript version used by Barry. See also item 5110.

260. Moreno Egas, Jorge. "Cristóbal de Gangotena y Jijón y los estudios genealógicos en el país," Revista del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Genealógicas y Antropológicas, 4/5:6 (dic. 1985), 1-4.

An appreciation of the genealogical work of Gangotena y Jijón (1884-1954).

261. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. Antropología ecuatoriana: pasado y presente. Quito: Edit. Ediguías, 1992. 136 p.

A solid account of the emergence of anthropology, archaeology, and ethnohistory as disciplines, their historical antecedents, and the state of anthropological, archaeological, and ethnohistorical research in Ecuador as of the early 1990s.

A preliminary version appeared as: "Pasado y presente de la antropología ecuatoriana: notas para su historia," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 71:151/152(ene./dic. 1988), 303-394.

262. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. "La etnohistoria y el protagonismo de los pueblos colonizados: contribución en el Ecuador," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 53-73.

An important statement as to the then recent and current status of ethnohistory and history as disciplines and professions in Ecuador by a leading Ecuadorian ethnohistorian.

See also Moreno Yánez's "Historiografía indígena y tradición de lucha" Ecuador indígena (item 571), p. 63-70.

263. Naranjo, Marcelo F. "Ideología de la investigación en el Ecuador," Cultura, 3:7 (mayo/ago. 1980), 196-206.

An important delineation of the ideological constraints to which research was and may still be subject in Ecuador. During the 1960s and 1970s the focus of government agency research was ideologically driven and the token amount the government allocated to state universities for research was a reflection of the State's negative view of the antiestablish-mentarianism of academicians, for example.

264. Navarro, José Gabriel. "El estado actual de los estudios históricos en el Ecuador y su importancia para la historia de España," Boletín del Instituto Nacional Mejía, ser. 7, 2:23/26 (ene./abr. 1935), 85-109.

Navarro's only statement on the state of historiography in Ecuador. Delimited to studies on the colonial period.

Reprinted in his: Estudios históricos, presentación por Jorge Salvador Lara, recopilación por Wilson Vega (Quito: Aymesa; Academia Nacional de Historia, 1995), p. 21-53.

265. Núñez Sánchez, Jorge. La historiografía ecuatoriana contemporánea (1970-1994). Quito: Ediciones de la FAU, 1994. 135 p.

A major review of late-twentieth-century works by Ecuadorian or national scholars who cultivate the past and Ecuadorianists or foreign historians by one of the leading national cultivators of the "new history." Especially concerned with "trends" (i.e., ideological and theoretical frameworks), approaches to the past, and types of history. Includes a substantial bibliography (p. 57-132).

The text under the same title--but not the accompanying bibliography--also appeared in: Anuario de estudios americanos, 53:1 (1996), 277-308.

266. Ortiz Crespo, Gonzalo. "La construcción de la historia social en el Ecuador," Economía y desarrollo (Quito), 1:2 (nov. 1979), 9-30.

An important commentary on works published by Ecuadorians and Ecuadorianists on the political economy and social history of the country. Primarily concerned with those studies that attempt to provide a theoretical framework, however incomplete, for understanding the "process of [Ecuador's] development" or that focus on the nineteenth century.

267. Ospina, Pablo. "Imaginarios nacionalistas: historia y significados nacionales en Ecuador, siglos XIX y XX," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 9 (II sem. 1996), 111-124.

A critical review of the role of history, especially of officially sponsored histories, in the formation of nationalism in Ecuador. Emphasizes the boundary dispute issue and views of indigenous groups.

268. Pachano, Simón. "Ciencias sociales y políticas en el Ecuador," Ciencias sociales y políticas en América Latina (Quito: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, 1987), p. 48-64.

An exceptionally insightful, highly suggestive outline of political, socioeconomic, and Social Scientific trends and developments and relationships between politics and intellectuals, the state and the Social Sciences in Ecuador from the advent of the Liberals through the late-twentieth century.

269. Pacheco Prado, Lucas. "El desarrollo de la investigación social en el Ecuador: apuntes para su estudio," Revista del IDIS, 10 (feb. 1982), 51-74.

A superficial review of the emergence of social scientific research in the twentieth century, beginning with the publication of Espinosa Tamayo's Psicología y sociología del pueblo ecuatoriano in 1916 (item 8324).

270. Paz y Miño Cepeda, Juan J. "La historiografía económica del Ecuador sobre el s. XIX y XX en los últimos 25 años," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 75-115.

An insightful analysis of late-twentieth century studies of the economic history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

271. Peñaloza Bretel, Marco Antonio. "La investigación historiográfica sobre la hacienda serrana ecuatoriana del s. XIX," Procesos, 7 (I sem. 1995), 35-58.

A solid review of the relatively limited work that had been done as of the mid 1990s on the history of rural estates in the highlands in the 1800s. Thematically and chronologically specific. Includes a bibliography.

272. Peralta Ruiz, Víctor. "La historia en el Ecuador (1980-1990)," Revista andina, 9:1 (jul. 1991), 261-274.

A favorable yet nonetheless critical analysis of the advances of the 1980s in terms of the ideological debates prevalent in Ecuadorian (but not necessarily Ecuadorianist) historiography during the decade in question. The author is a Peruvian and an Andeanist.

273. "Perspectivas de la investigación histórica ecuatoriana: siglos XIX y XX," Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 277-285.

The conclusions of the 1980 "Simposio sobre el Ecuador en 1830."

274. Ponce Ribadeneira, Alfredo. "Algunas reflexiones sobre la obra Noticias secretas de Amércia," Revista, Instituto de Historia Eclesiástica Ecuatoriana, 2 (1976), 79-82.

Maintains that the Barry edition or 1826 version is not entirely faithful to the original text and that Juan and Ulloa's treatise is not altogether accurate.

275. Porras Barrenechea, Raúl. Los cronistas del Perú, 1528-1650, y otros ensayos, edición, prólogo y notas de Franklin Pease G.Y., revisada, aumentada y actualizada por Oswaldo Holguín Callo, bibliografía de Félix Alvarez Brun y Graciela Sánchez Cerro. Lima: Banco de Crédito del Perú: Ministerio de Educación, 1986. 964 p.

One of the most important analysis of the chroniclers of the conquest and early colonial periods ever undertaken.

276. Porras G., Pedro I. "Reseña histórica de las investigaciones arqueológicas en el Oriente ecuatoriano," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 133-146.

A detailed review of the limited scientific archaeological work done in the Oriente by Clifford Evans, Betty Meggers, and Porras himself. Includes a discussion of the amateur and dilatory labor of their "predecessors."

277. Porras P., María Elena. "Nuevas perspectivas sobre la historia territorial del Ecuador y Perú: críticas de los textos escolares de historia de límites," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 117-123.

The most important points that María Elena Porras makes are: 1) to base Ecuador's territorial claims on the alleged pre-Inca Reino de Quito and the doctrine of uti possidetis of 1810 perpetuates the mythification of the history of Ecuador; 2) that to continue to portray Peru as the villain tends to exacerbate tension and misunderstanding between Ecuador and Peru; and 3) that the history of boundaries as taught in both countries contributes neither to the formation of national consciousness nor to the resolution of the conflict.

278. Romero Arteta, Oswaldo. "Pedro de Mercado, historiador y escritor del siglo XVII," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 68:145/146 (ene./dic. 1985), 103-120.

Mercado (1620-1701) was a Jesuit priest and the author of the monumental Historia de la Provincia del Nuevo Reino y Quito de la Compañía de Jesús (item 5109).

279. Ruales B., Ricardo. "Los estudios sobre Manuela Sáenz," Quitumbe, 5 (1982), 34-63.

A critical review of literature on Bolívar's quiteña lover.

280. Salazar, Ernesto. "La arqueología contemporánea del Ecuador (1970-1993)," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 5-28.

A balanced survey of "scientific" archaeology in Ecuador. Includes a discussion of pre-1970 developments, especially of the work of Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño, Emilio Estrada, Betty J. Meggers, and Clifford Evans.

281. Salvador Lara, Jorge. "Cuenca y los historiadores," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 48 (1983), 119-134.

282. Salvador Lara, Jorge. "Tres artículos del P. Juan de Velasco," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 164-170.

An unabashedly favorable appreciation of Father Velasco. An example of the traditional, still all too prevalent great man approach to the past.

284. Schmit, Marilee. "Ethnicity, Cultural Continuity, and Socioeconomic Processes: Recent Works in Ecuadorian Ethnology and Ethnography," Latin American Research Review, 23:3 (1988), 238-247.

Reviews Luzuriaga and Zuvekas's Income Distribution and Poverty (item 129), Political Anthropology of Ecuador (item 7956), Whitten's Sicuanga Runa (item 8178), and Cultural Transformations and Ethnicity (item 7939).

285. Schroder, Barbara. "Indians in the Halls of Academe: Rural Andean Peoples Confront Social Science," Peasant Studies, 18:2 (Winter 1991), 97-116.

Reviews scholarship on the Levantamiento Nacional Indígena of 1990.

286. Smith, Peter H. "The Image of a Dictator: Gabriel García Moreno," Hispanic American Historical Review, 45:1 (Feb. 1965), 1-24.

A critical review of pro and con literature by Ecuadorian and other Latin American scholars.

287. Szászdi, Adam. "The Economic History of the Diocese of Quito, 1616-1787," Latin American Research Review, 21:2 (1986), 266-275.

Reviews Clayton's Los astilleros de Guayaquil colonial (item 6744), Cushner's Farm and Factory (item 1370), Freile Granizo's transcription of the Actas del Cabildo colonial de Guayaquil (item 6789), and the Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas (item 509), and comments on other recent work on the economic history of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Marred by personalism unlike the author's earlier survey (item 288).

288. Szászdi, Adam. "The Historiography of the Republic of Ecuador," Hispanic American Historical Review, 44:4 (Nov. 1964), 503-550.

A comprehensive, more or less objective survey of traditional Ecuadorian historiography.

Also published in Spanish as: "La historiografía de la República del Ecuador," Cultura, 8:22 (mayo/ago. 1985), 129-172.

289. "Los Talleres de Investigación Social: una experiencia referente a la historia social," Felicia Astudillo [et al.], Revista del IDIS, 10 (feb. 1982), 135-170.

Outlines the research plan for "Estructura social y lucha de clases en la región centro-sur del Ecuador (1820-1861)" under the direction of Lucas A. Achig S.

290. Terán, Francisco. "Los geógrafos de la patria," Estudios de historia y geografía (Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1983), p. 149-183.

A knowledgeable review of geographic studies of the country, beginning with those of Dionisio de Alsedo y Herrera in the mid-eighteenth century, through those of professionally trained scholars of the late-twentieth century, including Terán himself. Written in 1982.

291. Terán Najas, Rosemarie. "La historia económica y social sobre la época colonial ecuatoriana: un balance de la producción historiográfica en los últimos 25 años," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 29-52.

An interesting but far from complete survey of studies of the 1970s, 1980s, and the early 1990s on the colonial period. Important as an indicator of what the "new" historians believe to have been the most important developments during the two and a half decades in question.

292. Tobar Donoso, Julio. "Un libro y un hombre," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:126 (jul./dic. 1975), 174-185.

A detailed sketch of the life of Francisco X. Aguirre and an appreciation of his posthumously published Bosquejo histórico de la República del Ecuador (item 529).

293. Uhle, Max. "El desarrollo de la prehistoria ecuatoriana en los primeros cien años de la república," El Ecuador en cien años de independencia (item 1927), vol. 1, p. 1-22.

Still a useful survey of the state of study of the prehispanic period as of 1930. Especially interesting is Uhle's critique of the then virtually sacrosanct González Suárez.

Reprinted in: Resumen histórico del Ecuador, 1830-930, 1947 (item 1966), vol. 1, p. 202-217; and in: Revista de antropología (Cuenca), 9 (abr. 1986), 211-250. See also item 1259.

294. Urigüen, Jaime Idrovo. "Panorama histórico de la arqueología ecuatoriana," Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Sección del Azuay, 8 (1989), 9-107.

A diachronic review of the development of "Ecuadorian" archaeology from the pre-1878 contributions of foreign scholars through the institutional studies of the 1970s and 1980s. Eighteen seventy-eight was a benchmark year because of the publication of Federico González Suárez's Estudio histórico sobre los Cañaris (item 895), "la primera obra de arqueología ecuatoriana."

295. Villacrés Moscoso, Jorge W. "Breve historia de la ciencia geográfica ecuatoriana," Cuadernos de historia y arqueología, 14/16:30/32 (abr. 1967), 16-62.

Also a diachronic review, but of foreign and national geographic studies of the country. Includes useful bibliographic data.

296. Viteri Gamboa, Julio. 3 voluntades y una finalidad. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas, 1971. 51 p.

Assesses the contributions of Emilio Estrada, Betty Meggers, and Clifford Evans to the archaeology of Ecuador.

297. Zapater, Irving Iván. "La revolución juliana a través del ojo crítico de Oscar Efrén Reyes: (apuntes preliminares para una crítica de Los últimos siete años," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 71:151/152 (ene./dic. 1988), 291-302.

A critical review of item 2572.