La República (1830-)

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA

DEL ECUADOR

Vol. I

por

MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

LA REPUBLICA (1830-)

This section is given over to those works that treat one or more aspects of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including those that are concerned with developments of the late 1800s and the early 1900s.

Once again I must stress that it was not always possible to assign studies to their proper chronological, regional, or thematic category on the basis of data base, especially library, subject headings. The subject headings "economic conditions" and "social conditions," for example, utilized by the Library of Congress and academic libraries in the United States and elsewhere in the world to refer to works on economic and social history as well as to works on "contemporary" or "recent" economic and social developments are not always helpful and sometimes misleading, especially when said subject headings are not accompanied by chronological subdivisions. It does not help either when cataloguers, abstracters, and indexers utilize country wide subject headings instead of specifying the region, province, canton, city or town to which the study is delimited or with which it is primarily concerned. Therefore once again my apologies in advance to the reader for the inconvenience this may cause insofar as the occasional inappropriate assignation of materials is concerned and to authors such as Andrés Guerrero, whom I have come to hold in very high regard as a scholar, for scattering his studies unnecessarily all over this bibliography. His La semántica de la dominación (item 1937), for example, properly belongs under "Historia regional y estudios relacionados: Sierra centro-norte" as do the majority of his other works.

1898. Abad Franco, Armando. Parteiensystem und Oligarchie in Ecuador. Berlin: Colloquium-Verlag, 1974. 283 p.

A socioeconomic study of the party system and of the role played by the elite in national politics from the 1830s through the 1960s.

1899. Acosta Espinosa, Alberto. Breve historia económica del Ecuador. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1995. 262 p.

A survey of the economic history of the national period.

1900. Acosta Espinosa, Alberto. La deuda externa: una historia de la deuda externa ecuatoriana. Quito: Grupo de Trabajo sobre Deuda Externa y Desarrollo, ALOP-CAAP-CECCA-CERG-CIUDAD, 1990. 386 p.

A useful introduction to the history of the external debt from 1830 through 1990. Written for non-specialists. See also the "3 ed. rev. y actualizada": Quito: Edit. "El Duende," 1990. 415 p.

1901. Araujo, Angel F. Episodios de campaña y relatos históricos. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1922. 68 p.

The memoirs of a participant in the civil wars of 1882-1895.

1902. Arízaga, Rafael María. Labores legislativas, 1887-1909, recopilación y notas de Carlos Arízaga Vega. Cuenca: Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 1958. 352 p.

Consists primarily of the author's speeches and participation in congressional debates and discussions.

1903. Armada del Ecuador. Una historia, una epopeya, un reto. Quito: Armada del Ecuador, 1981. 108 p.

A history of the Navy.

1904. La Armada en imágenes, recopilación y coordinación, Jenny Estrada R. Guayaquil: Armada del Ecuador, Instituto de Historia Marítima, 1987. 1 v.

To the best of my knowledge, this set died with vol. 1.

1905. Arosemena, Guillermo. Ecuador, evolución y búsqueda del despegue económico, 1830-1938. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1992. 378 p.

A data rich but methodologically unsophisticated history of economic crises during the first 108 years of the national period.

1906. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Estudios sobre historia ecuatoriana. Quito: Tehis: Iadap, 1993. 152 p.

A set of miscellaneous essays on various events and developments of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries.

1907. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Los partidos políticos en el Ecuador: síntesis histórica. Quito: Ediciones La Tierra, 1986. 83 p.

An insightful review of the political history and of the political parties of Ecuador from the early nineteenth century through the recent present, with an emphasis on developments of the second half of the twentieth century, by a leading political historian. See also: 2 ed. actualizada. Quito: Ediciones La Tierra, 1989. 94 p.

1908. Azanza J., F. Alberto. "La depreciación monetaria en el Ecuador," Boletín del Ministerio del Tesoro (Quito), 1:2 (1945), 28-38.

A quantitative study of the devaluation of the national currency between 1830 and 1943.

1909. Azanza J., F. Alberto. "El presupuesto nacional a través de 115 años," Boletín del Ministerio del Tesoro (Quito), 2:5 (1946), 1-136.

A quantitative study of the national budget, 1830-1945.

1910. Baca Bartelotti, Washington. Radiografía del Estado ecuatoriano, 1 ed. Quito: El Duende, 1991. 160 p.

1911. Banco del Ecuador. Historia de medio siglo, 1868-1918. Guayaquil: Impr. de El Independiente, 1919. 232 p.

On the Bank's first half century.

1912. Barrera, Isaac J. De nuestra América: hombres y cosas de la República del Ecuador. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1956. 164 p.

Contents: "Justificación del libro"; "Introducción a la historia y la literatura de la República del Ecuador"; "Montalvo y García Moreno: dos hombres notables de América"; "Federico González Suárez, el arzobispo historiador"; "Los poetas de 1910"; "Novelistas modernos."

1913. Blanksten, George I. Some Ecuadorian Constitutional Problems. 1949. iv, 535 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of California at Los Angeles.

A political history of the first 120 years of the national period. See also item 2346.

1914. Bonilla, Heraclio. "Lecciones del endeudamiento externo en los países andinos antes de la primera guerra mundial," Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 3:5 (1989), 79-92.

A comparative study of the Peruvian, Ecuadorian, and Bolivian experiences with external debt from independence through the eve of World War I.

1915. Borja, Luis Alberto. La huella de la historia. Guayaquil: Edit. Jourvin, 1935. 155 p.

Contents: "La huella de la historia"; "La cabalgata de las pasiones"; "La médula de la sublevación"; "En el año de 1931"; "El arribo de los vencedores"; "Un ebanista notable"; "El carabinero (Enrique Barriga)"; "Montalvo"; "Carlos Valdiviezo Chiriboga"; "El CXII aniverario del 21 de abril de 1822"; "Escuchen"; "Es así"; "El símbolo"; La coronación"; "Sigue la huella."

1916. Borrero, Manuel María. Reminiscencias histórico-liberales. Cuenca: G. Molina, 1957. 140 p.

Only vol. one was published: El Ecuador y sus instituciones antes y después de 1895.

1917. Carrión, Alejandro. Imágenes de la vida política del Ecuador. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1980. 133 p.

Includes 118 coeval photographs of presidents and political events from the 1860s through the 1970s.

1918. Casanova Loor, Neptalí. El centenario: homenaje al centenario de la República, 1830-1930. Guayaquil: Impr. El Tiempo, 1930. 476 p.

1919. "Los Centenarios de 1932," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 2:2 (1932), 102-208.

On the centennials of Ecuador's taking possession of the Galápagos, and of the births of Numa Pompilio Llona, Juan Montalvo, and Juan León Mera. Includes essays by Efraín Camacho Santos among others, and corresponding bibliographies compiled by Carlos A. Rolando.

1920. Correa Paredes, Julio. La economía de la república 1830-1980. Quito: Dirección General de Información, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, 1982. 102 p.

A superficial review of the economic history of the first 150 years of the national period.

1921. Costales Samaniego, Alfredo. "Estadísticas de sangre," Panoramas (México, D.F.), 3:18 (1965), 69-102.

An attempt to quantify civil strife from the 1830s through the mid 1960s.

1922. Crespo Toral, Remigio. "Cien años del Ecuador-República," América (Quito), 9:58 (nov./dic. 1934), 357-384.

1923. Crespo Toral, Remigio. La conciencia nacional y otros estudios sobre historia, selección y prólogo por el P. Julián Bravo. Quito: Grupo Aymesa, 1994. 568 p. (Biblioteca Grupo Aymesa; 11)

Brings together almost all, of not all, of Crespo Toral's publications on the independence period and on García Moreno.

1924. Chiriboga, Lucía; and Silvana Caparrini. Identidades desnudas: Ecuador 1860-1920: la temprana fotografía del indio de los Andes, estudio introductorio Mathías L. Abram, 1 ed. Quito: ILDIS: Ediciones Abya-Yala: Taller Visual, 1994. 144 p.

1925. Deler, Jean-Paul. "Transformaciones regionales y organización del espacio nacional ecuatoriano entre 1830 y 1930," Historia y región en el Ecuador, 1830-1930 (item 6591), p. 295-353.

A masterful survey of infrastructure and structural changes at the regional level and of the gradual integration of the nation as a country and as a state during the first 100 years of the republican period.

1926 La Deuda externa del Ecuador, estudio introductorio y selección de Francisco Swett. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Corporación Editora Nacional, 1981. 488 p. (Biblioteca básica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 12)

An anthology of position papers by Emilio María Terán, Antonio Flores, and Eloy Alfaro.

1927. Ecuador. Presidencia. Recopilación de mensajes dirijidos por los presidentes y vicepresidentes de la República, jefes supremos y gobiernos provisorios a las convenciones y congresos nacionales desde el año de 1819 hasta nuestros días, por Alejandro Noboa. Guayaquil: Impr. de El Tiempo [etc.], 1900-1908. 5 v.

Published the official messages of the heads of states to Congress and national conventions. Covers the years 1819-1906.

1928. El Ecuador en cien años de independencia, 1830-1930, J. Gonzalo Orellana [editor]. Quito: Escuela Tipográfica Salesiana, 1930. 2 v.

A multi-authored history of the first century of the national period. Includes sections on the state of provinces, cantons, and cities (vol. 1, p. 295-438) and a section on "La organización económica de la república" (vol. 1, p. 439-452) as well as a number of essays--here within listed separately--on political, diplomatic, military, cultural, and ecclesiastical events and developments.

1929. Elecciones y democracia en el Ecuador. Quito: Tribunal Supremo Electoral; Corporación Editora Nacional, 1989-1990. 5 v.

Provides detailed analyses of elections and the electoral process from the 1830s through the 1980s.

Contents: vol. 1, El Proceso electoral ecuatoriano (186 p.); vol. 2, Los Partidos políticos en el Ecuador (350 p.); vol. 3, Los Resultados electorales en Ecuador (294 p.); vol. 4, Análisis de los procesos electorales (230 p.); vol. 5, Legislación electoral ecuatoriana (291 p.).

1930. Escritores políticos. Puebla: Edit J.M. Cajica, Jr., 1960. 694 p. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mínima; [16])

Consists of selections from the writings of Vicente Rocafuerte, Gabriel García Moreno, Antonio Borrero, Eloy Alfaro, Juan Benigo Vela, and José Peralta.

1931. Espinosa, Roque. "Hacienda, comunidad y concertaje en el Ecuador," Cultura, 7:19 (mayo/ago. 1984), 135-209.

A ground breaking essay on economic and social relationships between haciendas, debt peonage, and Indian communities in the 1800s and early 1900s.

1932. Espinoza, Leonardo. "La influencia de 1830 en el desarrollo republicano del Ecuador," Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 229-258.

A stimulating reexamination of demographic, economic, and political cycles and trends in post-independence Ecuador. See also the "Críticas y comentarios" thereupon (ibid., p. 259-275).

1933. Etnia, poder y diferencia, José Sánchez-Parga [et al.]. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1990. 215 p.

Consists of six essays, three by José Sánchez-Parga, and the other three by Fernando Guerrero, Maxime Haubert, and Roberto Santana, respectively, on various aspects of relationships between the state and other power groups on the one hand and ethnic groups, especially indigenous, in the highlands on the other, during the national period.

1934. Fuentealba, Gerardo. "La sociedad indígena en las primeras décadas de la república: continuidades coloniales y cambios republicanos," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 8, p. 45-77.

A seminal essay on fiscal and labor exactions imposed on indigenes between 1830 and 1895, on how native Andeans governed themselves, on the question of communes, and on indigenous uprisings. Reflects some original research and considerable thought.

1935. Galarza Izquierdo, Luis. Ensayo político sobre clases sociales y partidos políticos en el Ecuador. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Jurisprudencia, 1984. 238 p.

1936. González Páez, Miguel Angel. Memorias históricas: génesis del liberalismo, su triunfo y sus obras en el Ecuador. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1934. viii, 638 p.

An eyewitness account of the years 1867-1912. The author was a prominent member of the Partido Conservador.

1937. Guerrero, Andrés. La semántica de la dominación: el concertaje de indios, 1 ed. Quito: Ediciones Libri Mundi Enrique Grosse-Luemern, 1991. 336 p.

Descriptive and interpretative but not hung up on paradigms. Instead Guerrero attempts to reconstruct the realities of life on the great estates of the northern highlands in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, especially insofar as peones conciertos and after the de jure but not de facto abolition of concertaje in 1918, huasipungeros are concerned. One of the critical points that Guerrero makes is that although conciertos/ huasipungeros were homologous juridically--one might almost say institutionally--their lifestyles, family situations, relationships with the patrón, socioeconomic status, etc. varied considerably, depending primarily on whether they were members of an ongoing community of a hacienda (large estate) or "temporarily" and "individually" attached, to a finca, quinta, cuadra, or huerto (medium or small estate). Guerrero also recognizes that "situaciones sociales concretas" of conciertos/huasipungeros varied spacially and temporally, and from hacienda to hacienda (regardless of size) or patrón to patrón inasmuch as there were "good" as well as "bad masters." Based on field work (including oral interviews), archival research, appropriate literature (including theoretical), and records of large estates in the valleys of Cayambe, Chillos, and Quito. Supposed to have had "al final de este libro las referencias documentales sobre los libros de hacienda" utilized by Guerrero, but, unfortunately, the corresponding bibliography nowhere appears. Notwithstanding this editorial defect, a well written and argued, unusually informative, exceptionally insightful study that considerably advances knowledge and understanding of the rural history of the region during the period in question.

1938. Hidalgo, Daniel B. Evolución política del Ecuador: estudio histórico-jurídico sociológico de las constituciones de la República del Ecuador. Quito: Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1917. 145 p.

1939. Hurtado, Osvaldo. El poder político en el Ecuador, 9a ed. Quito: Letraviva-Edit. Planeta del Ecuador, 1993. xix, 417 p.

An outstanding political history of the national period by one of the writer/makers of recent history. A professionally trained social scientist, Hurtado is also active in politics, having been a president of the country. This work is doubly important because Hurtado endeavored to establish a model of Ecuador's "development" based on endogenous experience rather than exogenous paradigm. This edition includes a new introductory essay and name and subject indexes.

Originally published: Quito: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1977. 312 p. The original Spanish edition was also published in a English version with revisions as: Political power in Ecuador, translated by Nick D. Mills, Jr., 1st English ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1980. xxvi, 398 p; and in an "encore ed.": Boulder: Westview Press, 1985. xxxix, 398 p. For critical evaluations see: Enrique Ayala Mora, Felipe Burbano de Lara, and Simón Espinosa Cordero's "El poder político en el Ecuador, de Osvaldo Hurtado, vigésimo aniversario," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 10 (I sem. 1997), 107-122.

1940. Hurtado, Osvaldo. "El sistema político en el Ecuador," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 13, p. 99-167.

A précis of item 1939.

1941. Imágenes e imagineros: representaciones de los indígenas ecuatorianos, siglos XIX y XX, Blanca Muratorio, editora. Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Ecuador, 1994. 293 p.

An anthology of original essays that focus on the perception and description of indigenes on the one hand, and the reaction thereto and treatment thereof, on the other. A major contribution to the intellectual and political as well as social history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

1942. Iturralde G., Diego A. "Nacionalidades indígenas y el Estado Nacional," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 13, p. 9-58.

An insightful and thought provoking review of the various ways in which the state has sought to deal with "the Indian problem" from the Spanish conquest through the late-twentieth century--with an emphasis on the 1900s--and of efforts by various ethnic groups, especially in the highlands and the Oriente, to survive, and in the 1980s and 1990s, to reassert themselves as separate nationalities and therefore also as polities in their own right.

1943. Libro del sesquicentenario. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1980-1983. 4 v.

An exceptionally important set on the first 150 years of the national period. Each vol. consists of separately authored essays on various aspects of politics and government, art and culture, and economic events and developments. Sometimes described separately although clearly conceived of and published as a whole. Vol. 4 includes author, subject, personal name, and place name indexes for the entire set. Contents: vol. 1, Política y sociedad: Ecuador, 1830-1980; vol. 2, Arte y cultura: Ecuador, 1830-1980; vol. 3-4, Economía: Ecuador, 1830-1980.

1944. Linke, Lilo. Ecuador, Country of Contrasts, 3rd ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1960. ix, 193 p.

A perspicacious introduction to the history of and to mid-twentieth-century Ecuador and its peoples by a long time foreign resident. Has rightly became a classic. The first edition appeared in 1954.

1945. Macías, Washington. Ecuador, de la agroexportación a la industrialización asociada, 1830-1986. [Ecuador? <i.e., Quito>]: Ecuatextos, [1986?]. 134 p. (Colección Problemas socio económicos del Ecuador)

Notwithstanding the question marks that North American cataloguers have added to the country and year of publication, it is known that this book was published in Ecuador, in Quito to be specific, and it is highly probable that the year of publication was 1986. A crudely reproduced work; it looks like photocopy in places. More importantly it is a high school text--a not insignificant consideration that North American catalog records overlook. A somewhat useful outline of economic developments and events from Ecuador's separation from Colombia through the beginning of the Febres Cordero administration, nonetheless, notwithstanding Macías's Marxist approach.

1946. Maier, Georg. "Presidential Succession in Ecuador, 1830-1970," Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 13:3/4 (July/Oct., 1971), 475-509.

Delineates the succession of national leaders from 1830 through 1970.

1947. Maloney F., Gerardo. "El negro y la cuestión nacional," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 13, p. 59-98.

Attempts to establish the role of blacks in the history of Ecuador from the Spanish conquest through the recent present. Reads more like a series of notes than an essay.

1948. Matamoros Jara, Carlos. "Breves apuntes sobre las monedas en el Ecuador," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 5:7 (1937), 317-341.

Abstracts legislation of Colombia (1821-1830) and Ecuador (1831-1937) regarding emission, value, convertibility, and regulation of coinage.

1949. Moncayo, Abelardo. Añoranzas, introducción por Pío Jaramillo Alvarado. Puebla, México: Cajica, 1967. 2 v.

Reprint; originally published: Quito, 1923. A convenient anthology of otherwise difficult to obtain, mostly ephemeral writings of a Liberal intellectual and collaborator of Eloy Alfaro.

Contents: P. Jaramillo Alvarado, "Don Abelardo Moncayo y su época," (1923); "El doctor Mariano Acosta" (1894); "Don Pedro Moncayo y don Pedro Carbo" (1890); "La jubilación del historiador Cevallos" (1890); "La reparación: el doctor Antonio Borrero C." (1892); "Un drama en miniatura: Dn. Miguel Valverde"; "Doña Mercedes G. de Moscoso: Athos a Silvio" (1887); "El general Lamar" (1899); "Doña Marietta de Veintimilla" (1889); "El teatro en Imbabura" (1881); "Nuestra cuestión de límites: réplica al Sr. Dr. Dn. Luis Cordero" (1902); "El concertaje de indios" (1912); "La excomunión en Manabí: cartas dirigidas al Sr. Dr. Dn. Felicísimo López"; "Montalvo civilizador" (1915).

1950. Monroy Garaicoa, Gustavo. "Apuntes para la historia de la Marina de Guerra del Ecuador," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 8:18/20 (1950), 55-62.

1951. Moreno S., Rubén Darío. Ecuador, economía y política en el último siglo. Quito: Facultad Ciencias Económicas, [1984?] 123 p.

A neo-Marxist analysis of cacao, banana, and petroleum cycles.

1952. Muñoz, Julio H. Doctrinas militares aplicadas en el Ecuador: historia y pedagogía militar; El Ejército que el Ecuador necesita. Quito: Estado Mayor General, 1949. 254 p.

Two works in one.

1953. "Nación, cultura nacional y literatura en el Ecuador," Adrián Carrasco V. [et al.]., Revista del IDIS, 16 (nov. 1986), 205-278.

Examines the interaction between the formation of a national identity and literature in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Utilizes as examples Roberto Andrade's Pancho Villamar (1900) and Luis A. Martínez's A la costa (1904). Also published in: Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca, 38 (dic. 1986), 9-74.

1954. Naranjo Puente, Hugo. Historia de la policía en el Ecuador, 1830-1956. Quito: Tall. Gráf. Nacionales, 1956. 352 p.

1955. Nicolá López, Gerardo. Síntesis de la historia de la República, 2 ed. Ambato: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo de Tungurahua, 1980. 508 p.

1956. Nurse, Charles. "Ecuador," The State, Industrial Relations and the Labour Movement in Latin America, edited by Jean Carrièrre, Nigel Haworth, and Jacqueline Roddick (New York: St. Martin's Press), p. 99-127.

A précis of the history of the labor movement in Ecuador. Nurse argues that the influence of the government over labor increased in the 1970s, more so in the rural than in the urban sector, however, as a result of the petroleum boom and agrarian reform.

1957. Oberem, Udo. "Contribución a la historia del trabajador rural en América Latina: 'conciertos' y 'huasipungeros' en Ecuador," Sarance, 6 (1978), 49-78.

A detailed, well researched working paper on the history of debt peonage in Ecuador from the beginning of forced labor on rural estates in the 1530s through the 1950s. Interestingly enough Oberem does not appear to have been aware of Pérez T.'s Las mitas en la Real Audiencia de Quito (item 1469). Reprinted in item 607 and in: Peones, conciertos y arrendamientos en América Latina, edición de Jan Bazant [et al.] (Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 1987), p. 47-90.

1958. Orellana, J. Gonzalo. "Resumen histórico de la república," El Ecuador en cien años de independencia (item 1928), vol. 1, p. 23-168.

1959. Orellana, J. Gonzalo. "Resumen histórico-político de la república," Resumen histórico del Ecuador, 1830-930, 1947 (item 1969), vol. 1, p. 7-144.

Updates item 1958.

1960. Paltán Domíguez, Leonor del Carmen. Ecuador 1830-República 1967. Quito: Impr. Don Bosco, 1978. 312 p.

Although a high school text, Sister Leonor del Carmen's Ecuador is an useful introduction to the national period, given her comprehensiveness of coverage and relative impartiality.

1961. Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo. Ecuador, la República de 1830 a nuestros días, 6a ed. corr. y aumentada. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1979. 557 p.

An idiosyncratic, ideologically biased interpretation of the national period.

1962. Peña Herrera, Juan. Historia de la aviación ecuatoriana, 1842-1943. Quito: Edit. Quito, [1944]. 254 p.

1963. Peralta, José. El régimen liberal y el régimen conservador juzgados por sus obras. Quito: Tip. de la Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1911. 156 p.

Anti-Flores, García Moreno, Caamaño, Flores Jijón, and Cordero. Pro-Alfaro.

1964. Pérez Concha, Jorge. De la goleta Alcance al cañonero Calderón. Guayaquil: Instituto de Historia Marítima, Armada del Ecuador, 1987. 2 v.

Highlights the history of the Navy from the wars for independence through the Peruvian invasion of 1941.

1965. Pérez Merchant, Braulio. Las colonias siria, libanesa y palestina en el Ecuador. Quito: Tall. Gráf. "Kaleda," 1931. 133 p.

1966. Pike, Frederick B. The United States and the Andean Republics: Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977. 493 p.

A political and ideological history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador--in that order--as well as a reconsideration of their relations with the United States. Insofar as Ecuador is concerned, Pike does not offer any new interpretations, but he does provide a useful digest of major developments for English-language readers.

1967. Prosistas de la República. Puebla: Edit. J.M. Cajica, Jr., 1960. 706 p. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mínima; [17])

Consists of selections from the writings of Vicente Solano, José Félix Valdivieso, Rafael Villagómez Borja, Benigo Malo, Francisco Javier Salazar, Antonio Flores, José Modesto Espinosa, Roberto Espinosa, Francisco Febres Cordero Muñoz (better known as Hermano Miguel), Honorato Vázquez, and Alberto Muñoz Vernaza.

1968. Quintero, Rafael; and Erika Silva. Ecuador, una nación en ciernes, 2 ed. rev. y corr. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1995. 3 v.

A superior analysis and interpretation of the political, economic. and social history of republican Ecuador, the historiography of which the authors themselves have enriched through their other studies as well as through the considerable original research and thought that went into the preparation of this work. Incorporates Quintero's 1978 doctoral thesis, Los partidos políticos en el Ecuador y la clase terrateniente en las transformaciones del Estado. Although Quintero's discussion of the class structure of pre-1895 Ecuador is less than desirable, he and Silva are to be commended for their detailed and comprehensive coverage of economic and social developments of the post-1895 years. Their depiction of the labor and peasant "classes" and movements is especially strong and richly textured, not that everyone will agree with their Marxist approach. Well indexed. 1 ed.: Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Ecuador; Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1991. 3 v. 3 ed., rev. y corr. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1998. 3 v.

1969. Resumen histórico del Ecuador: 1830-1930, 1947, J. Gonzalo Orellana [editor]. Quito: Edit. Fr. Jodoco Ricke, 1948-1957. 3 v.

Vol. 3 subtitled: Apuntaciones cronológicas complementarias, 1947-1957. Almost a wholly new work, not just an update of: El Ecuador en cien años de independencia (item 1927). Includes additional authors as well as new essays.

1970. Reyes, Oscar Efrén. Historia de la República: esquema de ideas y hechos del Ecuador, al partir de la emancipación. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1931. 331 p.

Subsequently reworked and updated as the second volume of the author's Breve historia general (item 636).

1971. Riofrío Villagómez, Eduardo. Manual de ciencia de hacienda y conceptos de derecho fiscal ecuatoriano, 4a ed. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1951-1952. 2 v.

Although the first vol. is a treatise on the public exchequer in Europe and Latin America at large, it includes considerable data on the history of the public exchequer in Ecuador from 1830 through the 1940s, and the second is given over entirely to the evolution of the tax structure of the country.

1972. Robalino Dávila, Luis. Orígenes del Ecuador de hoy. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana; Puebla, México: Cajica, 1964-1970. 8 v. in 10.

An exceptionally detailed political history of the nineteenth and early- twentieth centuries. Diachronic but multifaceted in coverage insofar as data are concerned. Traditional in approach and methodology, however. Unfortunately not indexed. Vol. 1, Nacimiento y primeros años de la república, covers Flores's first presidency; vol. 2, Rocafurete, 2 ed., the Rocafuerte years and Flores's second and third "terms"; vol. 3, La reacción anti-floreana, the Roca, Urbina, and Robles years; vol. 4, García Moreno, 2 ed., the García Moreno period; vol. 5, Borrero y Veintimilla (2 v.), the Borrero and Veintimilla years; vol. 6, Diez años de civilismo, the "Progressive" period; and vols. 7, Eloy Alfaro y su primera época (2 v.) and 8, El ocaso del viejo luchador, the Alfaro years.

The first edition of García Moreno (Quito: Tall. Gráf. Nacionales, 1949) is generally considered the most objective account of the politics and the politicians of 1860-1875. See also Robalino Dávila's Apéndice al libro "García Moreno" (Quito: L. Robalino Dávila, 1964).

1973. Robalino Dávila, Luis. Testimonio de los tiempos. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1971. 303 p.

A miscellany of Robalino's lesser writings on men and events of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Includes a useful summary of his opus magnus Orígenes del Ecuador de hoy (item 1972).

1974. Rodríguez, Linda Alexander. "La política en el Ecuador, 1830-1925," Cultura, 9:26 (set./dic. 1986), 13-40.

1975. Rodríguez, Linda Alexander. The Search for Public Policy: Regional Politics and Government Finances in Ecuador, 1830-1940. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. xv, 281 p.

A revision of her doctoral thesis: Ecuador's National Development: Government Finances and the Search for Public Policy, 1830-1940. 1981. University of California, Los Angeles. xvii, 403 leaves. A superior study of the politics and the political economy of the first 110 years of the national period. Also one of the very few studies that examines the role of regionalism in the political history of the post independence period systematically. Includes statistical appendixes. Chapters 5-6 have been published in Spanish as: "La Reforma bancaria de la revolución juliana y sus secuelas económicas, 1926-1937," Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 1:2 (1987), 11-101, has as the work as a whole: Las finanzas públicas en el Ecuador (1830-1940). Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1992. 273 p. (Biblioteca de historia económica; 4)

1976. Rolando, Carlos A. "Anuario administrativo de la República del Ecuador," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 7:12/17 (1947), 260-296.

A chronology of the constitutional assemblies and congresses, including extraordinary sessions, heads of state and ministers.

1977. Rolando, Carlos A. Obras públicas ecuatorianas: cronología de las obras públicas, fiscales, municipales y particulares, llevadas a cabo desde la fundación de la República del Ecuador, mayo de 1830 hasta nuestros días. Guayaquil: Tall. Tip. de la Sociedad Filantrópica, 1930. 346 p.

1978. Rolando, Carlos A. "Los presidentes del Ecuador," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 4:4/6 (1934-1936), 234-246.

A chronology.

1979. Romero y Cordero, Remigio. El ejército en cien años de vida republicana, 1830-1930. Quito: Centro de Estudios Históricos del Ejército Ecuatoriano, 1991. 491 p. (Biblioteca del Ejército Ecuatoriano; vol. 1)

Reprint; originally published in: Ejército Nacional, 12:67 (1933), 7-210. Includes a critical analysis of the work by General Marcos Gándara Enríquez. There is also a 1980 reprint: Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad de Guayaquil. 210 p.

1980. Roth, Karl Ernst. "Das Heer von Ekuador," Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, 48:312 (1984), 42-47; 48:313 (1984), 78-83.

An overview of the history of the Ejército del Ecuador from its origins during the wars for independence through the recent present.

1981. Rubio Orbe, Gonzalo. Los indios ecuatorianos: evolución histórica y políticas indigenistas. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1987. 226 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 18)

Notwithstanding the title, much more a history of Ecuadorian policies towards and thought regarding "Indians" than of ethnic groups in Ecuador. Also Rubio Orbe's final book.

1982. Rumazo González, Alfonso. Gobernantes del Ecuador: (13 de mayo de 1830-20 de setiembre de 1932). Quito: Edit. Bolívar, 1932. 249 p.

Although out-of-date as well as long since out-of-print, a classic as well as perennially useful reference work.

1983. Saint-Geours, Yves. "La genèse de l'industrie en Equateur, 1860-1914," Bulletin de l'Institut français d'études andines, 13:3/4 (1984), 21-28.

1984. Saint-Geours, Yves. "Quelques aspects de la vie économique d'Equateur de 1830 a 1930," Bulletin de l'Institut français d'études andines, 9:3/4 (1980), 69-84.

1985. Salvador Lara, Jorge. "Breve escorzo sobre historia del Ecuador y filatelia," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:126 (jul./dic. 1975), 186-190.

An introduction to the history of postage stamps, beginning with the first one issued in 1865. Includes 22 unnumbered pages of plates.

1986. Sevilla, Carlos Bolívar. Un siglo de vida republicana: rasgos y comentarios históricos. Ambato: Impr. "Progreso," 1930. 52 p.

1987. "Testimonios para la historia de la artesanía ecuatoriana en el tránsito al capitalismo," estudio introductorio a cargo de Milton Luna Tamayo, Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 1:2 (1987), 185-329.

A useful compilation of sources materials on artisans and craftsmen, especially in Quito and Guayaquil, during the late-nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century.

1988. Tobar Donoso, Julio. El indio en el Ecuador independiente. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1992. xi, 554 p.

Primarily a study of legislation affecting as well as "governing" indigenes, especially laws relating to tithing, debt peonage, and agrarian reform, and of "Indian" institutions such as the "cabildo de indios" and "comunas."

1989. Vacas Galindo, David. Apuntes históricos del telégrafo nacional. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1934. 36 p.

An essay on the history of the telegraph system in Ecuador.

1990. La Vida de cada día: el Ecuador en avisos, 1822/1939, volumen realizado bajo la supervisión de Irving Iván Zapater, 1 ed. en castellano. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1992. 281 p. Chiefly ill. (Colección imágenes; vol. 8)

Not simply a pictorial history of advertising in/on Ecuador but a revealing compilation of how the country was depicted at home and abroad. The illustration are also useful, to some extent, as depictions of the material culture of everyday life.

1991. Vivar Cueva, T. "El comercio ecuatoriano en cien años de vida autónoma: acotaciones al margin del movimiento económica realizado en la República, desde el año 1830 hasta nuestros días," El Ecuador comercial, 83 (mayo 1930). 1 v. (not paginated)

A special issue of El Ecuador comercial.

1992. Whitaker, Arthur P. The United States and South America: the Northern Republics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1948. xx, 280 p.

Insofar as Ecuador is concerned, replaced but not altogether superseded by item 1966. Also important as a statement as to how Ecuador has been perceived by North American Latin Americanists.

1993. Wiles, Dawn Ann. Land Transportation within Ecuador, 1822-1954. 1971. vii, 276 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Louisiana State University.

A useful survey.

1994. Yépez, Manuel A. Capítulos: apuntes varíos, 1830-1942. Quito: Tall. Gráf. Nacionales, 1945. 441 p.

Consists of miscellaneous essays on events and developments, politics and personages of the national period.