Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA

DEL

ECUADOR

por

Michael T. Hamerly

INTRODUCCION

The last bibliographic guide to Ecuadorian historiography was published in 1978 (entry 150). Since then a veritable explosion of library materials on the history of Ecuador has occurred. Literally thousands of new books, articles, and doctoral dissertations in the Humanities and Social Sciences, relating to the past of Ecuador in one way or another, have appeared and continue to appear. Yet coverage of these materials in specialized as well as in standard abstracts, bibliographies, and indexes has been less than satisfactory. In this regard it cannot be overemphasized that Ecuador is one of those countries for and in which bibliographic control had yet to be achieved as of the late 1990s, and, I suspect, still remains to be achieved.

Concurrent with the explosion of publications has been the internationalization of Ecuadorian studies. Although there had always been some interest in Ecuador elsewhere in the world, there did not used to be more than a few Ecuadorianists. The relative neglect of Ecuadorian studies outside of Ecuador, however, began to be rectified in the 1970s. By the 1990s, there were dozens of professionally trained scholars, in the Humanities and Social Sciences, in the United States and Canada, in France, Germany, Great Britain, Spain, elsewhere in Europe, and in other Latin American countries, actively engaged in research and publishing on a wide variety of topics having to do with Ecuador.

The explosion of interest in Ecuador elsewhere in the world has contributed to the increase in the quality as well as to the quantity of work being done on the country. The internationalization of Ecuadorian studies is not without its downside, however. On the one hand, some of the work being done appears in little known or obscure venues. On the other, some of the publications in question never appear in other languages or are not translated and republished in Spanish--the one language we should all have in common--until years, sometimes decades, later. Therefore it has become increasingly more difficult to stay abreast of the literature, and it has long since become necessary for Ecuadorianists to cope with materials in several languages--at least English, French, and German in addition to Spanish--in order to remain current in their respective fields.

Heretofore there were only two comprehensive attempts to register historical production on Ecuador from pre-Hispanic times through the "present": Carlos Manuel Larrea's Bibliografía científica del Ecuador (Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1948-1953, 5 v. [entry 110]; 2¬ ed.: Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispánica, 1952, 5 v. in 1 [entry 111]); and Robert E. Norris's Guía bibliográfica para el estudio de la historia ecuatoriana (Austin: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Texas at Austin, 1978 [entry 150]). Both were pioneering works.

Larrea's Bibliografía científica was the first comprehensive register of ecuatoriana, not just of Ecuadorian historiography. Furthermore, it was also the most comprehensive bibliography of ecuatoriana until 1989, when it began to be supplanted but not altogether superseded by the Diccionario bibliográfico ecuatoriano (entry 26). The 1¬ ed. of Larrea's Bibliografía científica listed 8,732 books and articles in the Humanities, Social Sciences, and Sciences published through 1946. The 2¬ ed. added 568 items, raising the total to 9,300, and advanced coverage through 1949.

Discipline specific, Norris's Guía bibliográfica updated and surpassed Larrea's Bibliografía científica insofar as historical materials per se are concerned. Norris described 3,577 books, pamphlets, articles, theses, and miscellaneous manuscripts, including some older works that did not appear in Larrea's Bibliografía científica. Norris also annotated some entries and added author and subject indexes, making his Guía bibliográfica more useful and easier to use than Larrea's Bibliografía científica.

Although they will never be "out-of-date," Larrea's Bibliografía científica and Norris's Guía bibliográfica inevitably became dated. They also suffer from errors of omission and commission. As already noted, Larrea's Bibliografía científica stops with 1946 or 1949 imprints, depending upon the edition consulted. (Even though Larrea began to publish a "3¬ ed." [entry 112], the new edition was limited to anthropological, archaeological, and linguistic materials.) The major problems with Larrea's Bibliografía científica are: he did not record publishers or printers; and in the case of books, he did not always specify the number of pages--oversights he rectified to some extent in the "3¬ ed." Furthermore, Larrea did not index his work. Nonetheless, his bare bones entries appear to be correct for the most part.

Norris's Guía bibliográfica advanced coverage of historical and related publications through the mid 1970s--he did not specify a cutoff year--but Norris violated one of the basic canons of research. Apparently he relied extensively on secondhand records, the specifics of which he does not seem to have checked against the actual publications. I do not know how else Norris could have made so many mistakes. He misattributed authorship in some cases; he garbled some titles; and in far too many instances, he failed to give complete publication data or pagination, especially in the case of articles. Furthermore, Norris included some manuscripts, without specifying where they may be seen, and some imprints that have nothing whatsoever to do with Ecuador but with Equatorial Africa.

It is important to note, however, that Larrea and Norris did not have at their disposal the bibliographic tools that subsequently came into existence, especially computerized databases. Moreover, there is nothing wrong with the scissors-and-paste approach to the compilation of a working bibliography. The different disciplines disagree as to how to cite, however, and what to include in a citation. Furthermore, even the most punctilious scholars and librarians make mistakes. Therefore, it behooves bibliographers to verify citations and catalog records against the particulars of the actual publications, if at all possible. Not to do so is to run the risk of perpetuating not just cryptic but erroneous citations.

I too have relied on the work of others, especially on Larrea and Norris, but I have endeavored to check every brief or suspect record against either the actual book, article, or dissertation, or against as many other, discrete records of the work in question as needed to flesh out or correct descriptions and to assign descriptors. In brief, I have tried to lay to rest as many phantoms of opus as possible without creating any new ones. Inevitably, therefore, several hundred references, including some that correspond to important works, have had to be excluded.

Two examples of what is meant by bibliographic ghosts are: German Colmenares's "Fundamentos económicos y sociales de una diferenciación nacional: el caso de la hacienda serrana en el Ecuador, 1800-1810," Historia y espacio: revista de estudios regionales del Departamento de Historia de la Universidad del Valle, 2:6/7 (1980); and John Isaacson, Holguer Jara, and Frank Salomon's, Tulipe: centro ceremonial del noroccidente de Pichincha (Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1986). I have been unable to verify the article by Colmenares. Colmenares himself nowhere refers to it in his 1992 "La hacienda en la sierra norte del Ecuador" (entry 6115), and it is not referenced in Marco Antonio Peñaloza Bretel's 1995 "La investigación historiográfica sobre la hacienda serrana ecuatoriana del s. XIX" (entry 270).

As for the Isaacson, Jara, and Salomon work, it does exist, but apparently only in manuscript. Notwithstanding the reference to Tulipe in various monographs, Salomon himself assured me that the book in question was not published. Undoubtedly that it is why it did not show up in any online public access catalog or in the Banco Central del Ecuador's catalog of its own publications. (Salomon's contribution to Tulipe, however, was finally published as a separate in 1997 by Abya-Yala--not by the Banco Central--as: Los Yumbos, Niguas y Tsatchila o "Colorados" durante la colonia española: etnohistoria del noroccidente de Pichincha, Ecuador [131 p.].)

Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador lists more than 8,814 books (including compendia of sources), articles in periodicals or in anthologies, and doctoral dissertations that have been published or are available through University Microfilms International. The reason for fudging as to the actual number of items included is because some entries correspond to several versions of the same work or to entries with analytics. Some entries, for example, describe the latest edition or reprint of a particular work with as many of the bibliographic particulars of earlier editions or of the original version that I was able to ascertain and considered important enough to detail in a note. Furthermore, I could not resist the temptation to add some titles in the introductory remarks to the various sections that comprise this bibliography. I also plead guilty to having included references to yet other works in some notes, sometimes by the same author(s), sometimes by another author or other authors, that I was unable to list separately, at least not without having to engage in extensive re-enumeration.

Generally speaking, the cutoff date of publication for inclusion in this bibliography is December, 1995. Nonetheless, some 1996 and 1997 imprints appear here, the database not having been closed until July 1997. I have been more liberal than Norris in coverage, but less encompassing than Larrea. Whereas Norris gave short shrift to the "pre-conquest" period, I consider that which may be called the "pre-Hispanic" period as important as any other and treat it accordingly. The past after all does not begin with the written word. On the other hand, only those Science publications and doctoral dissertations that have to do with the history of scientific expeditions to Ecuador or with the history of scientific developments and events in Ecuador have been included. In other words, unlike Larrea, I have excluded most works relating to the natural history of Ecuador. Basic or "core"--in the Library Science sense of the word--publications on climate, flora and fauna, and geology, however, have been included.

Many works that are not readily available in Ecuador or elsewhere in Latin America appear here. By the same token many works that are not generally available, if at all, in North America or European libraries are also described. But the lack of access to any given work has nothing whatsoever to do with its importance. Every book or article that appeared to me to be significant has been listed regardless of its availability or, for that matter, the language in which it appears, or its "age," provided I was able to verify its bibliographic particulars and to ascertain the gist of its contents. However, only doctoral dissertations that are readily available are included. At the same time, I have included some works that are not important and never were in an effort to provide as complete a historical bibliography of Ecuador as possible.

In a bibliography of this magnitude it is inevitable that some anomalies should have crept in. I hope that I caught them all and send them on their way, but I cannot be certain. Be that as it may, entries 2384, 3380, 3395, 5284, 6295, 6358, 7086, 7136, 7660, and 8304 were eliminated because they turned out to be redundancies or citations whose particulars I could not flesh out.

Volume one of Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador opens with "Bibliografías " (entries 1-200), followed by sections on "Estudios historiográficos y relacionados" (entries 201-297), "Ayudas de investigación" (entries 298-441), and "Revistas" (entries 442-525). These four sections are complementary, not altogether discrete, and as comprehensive as I could make them in order to facilitate the task of other Ecuadorianists. "Bibliografías" includes every bibliography of ecuatoriana in the Humanities, Social Sciences, and Natural Sciences for which I was able to find or to establish a satisfactory description. "Estudios historiográficos" includes materials having to do with the study and teaching of the Social Sciences as well as historiographical studies per se. Only a few books and articles on the study and teaching of the Humanities appear because there do not seem to be more than a handful. Apparently this is because the Humanities, with the notable exception of Literature, did not attract nearly as much attention in Ecuador as History and the Social Sciences during the closing decades of the twentieth century.

"Ayudas de investigación" consists primarily of guides to and studies of archives, libraries, museums, and private collections in Ecuador and repositories located elsewhere in the world that have materials on Ecuador. The "Revistas" section lists every historical and related periodical for which I have been able to find or establish an acceptable bibliographic description (that is to say, a description that includes enumeration, place of publication, and dates of issuance and publication). N.B. With one or two exceptions, serials that are primarily bibliographic or statistical in coverage, however, are entered under "Bibliografías" or "Estadística."

Works having to do with Ecuador in general or with the history of Ecuador at large are described next, under "Historia: obras generales y misceláneas" (entries 526-658), followed by works on the "Período prehispánico" (entries 659-1305). "Período prehispánico" lists studies having to do with the archaeology, physical anthropology, and ethnohistory of Ecuador prior to the Spanish conquest. This section also includes some works on the "prehistory" of the country or its component regions. Inevitably the ethnohistorical studies listed in this section also examine the Spanish conquest and the early colonial period to some extent and therefore will be of interest to students of the "Período hispánico" too. Appropriate subject headings such as "Ecuador -- Historia -- Conquista española" and "Ecuador -- Historia -- Siglo XVI" will guide those readers who do not wish to plow through the "Período prehispánico" section to the pertinent books, articles, and dissertations.

The remainder of volume one is given over to the "Período hispánico," and the "Período Nacional." The "Período hispánico" is divided into "La conquista española y las guerras civiles" (entries 1306-1341) and "La colonia" (entries 1342-1545). The section on the Spanish conquest is meager because the conquest of what would become Ecuador has been overshadowed by the conquest of the Tahuantinsuyu at large and because I chose not to include the majority of the general accounts and coeval chronicles inasmuch as several excellent guides thereof and thereto already exist.

The "Período Nacional" is divided into "La independencia y bajo la Gran Colombia (1809-1830)" (entries 1546-1897), "La República (1830-)" (entries 1898-1994), "Siglo XIX (1830-1895)" (entries 1995-2213), and "Siglo XX. The "Siglo XX" is subdivided into 1895-" (entries 2214-2298) "1895-1960" (entries 2299-2626) and "1960-" (entries 2627-2973).

Works on a particular region, province, city, or town during the colonial period, the nineteenth century, or the twentieth century are listed under "Historia regional" or "Historia urbana" in volume two. Works having to do with a particular region, province, city, or town during the independence period, however, are entered under "La independencia y bajo la Gran Colombia (1809-1830)" in volume one. This is not altogether logical, but it makes as much sense as the alternative arrangement because the majority of works on the struggle for liberation from Spain and the subsequent separation from Colombia appear to be primarily studies of the independence period and secondarily of a specific region, province, city, or town. Again recourse to the index of subject headings will guide the reader to the relevant works.

Another aside is in order at this point. There is no one correct way to arrange a bibliography. By the same token "there is no one correct way to determine 'aboutness'"1 The most that one can hope to achieve is an arrangement that for the most part will guide scholars and students to the materials they should consult, and an assignation of more or less appropriate subject headings that will lead researchers to the majority, if not to all, of the specific works they seek. In this regard, it should be noted that I initially assigned some works to divisions and subdivisions on the basis of the subject headings proffered by catalogers rather than upon the basis of personal perusal (not always possible), only to discover subsequently that some of the works in question would fit better or in fact belonged elsewhere. But there comes a moment in the life of every bibliography when one must bring it to a halt and launch it in the hopes that its usefulness will outweigh its shortcomings.

Volume two opens with biographical and related materials. The "great man" approach continues to be cultivated by many, perhaps the majority of, Ecuadorian scholars as evidenced by the substantial number of works on "protohombres" listed under "Biografías" (2974-3703). Biographies of women, mostly notable women but also some of women of lesser fame and fortune, however, began to appear in the closing decades of the twentieth century.

Volume two continues with "Historia de la cultura," "Historia de la Iglesia," "Historia de la medicina," "Historia demográfica," "Historia diplomática y legal," "Historia regional y estudios relacionados," and "Regionalismo." "Historia de la cultura" is divided into "Obras generales y misceláneas" (entries 3704-3759), "Arte y arquitectura" (entries 3760-4045), "Ciencias" (entries 4046-4102), "Educación" (entries 4103-4307), "Ideas" (entries 4308-4429), "Lenguas y lingüística" (entries 4430-4542), "Literatura" (entries 4543-4745), "Literatura folklórica y folklore" (entries 4746-4865), and "Música, teatro, radio, y televisión" (4866-4955). Each of these sections includes materials on late-twentieth-century and therefore, at the time of their publication, "recent" developments, events, and persons.

"Historia de la Iglesia" consists of two subsections on "Historia eclesiástica" (entries 4956-5227), and "Iglesia y Estado" (entries 5228-5296). "Historia eclesiástica" and "Iglesia y Estado" consist mostly of historical materials. The next two sections, "Historia de la medicina" (entries 5297-5383) and "Historia demográfica" (entries 5384-5436), include only historical studies and published sources. Materials on recent or late twentieth-century health problems and health care appear under "Higiene pública y medicina" in volume three, and those having to do with post-1949 demographic developments under "Población," also in volume three.

"Historia diplomática y legal" is divided into "Legislación" (entries 5437-5532), "Límites" (entries 5533-5731), and "Relaciones exteriores" (entries 5732-5833). I have listed only those studies that are primarily historical in coverage or nature and major compendia of laws and regulations in the "Legislación" subsection. Nonetheless, I have included every guide to legislation of which I am aware and for which I was able to establish a satisfactory description in order to facilitate the task of other researchers.

"Historia regional y estudios relacionados" consists of six subsections corresponding to the six macroregions of Ecuador: "Galápagos" (entries 5834-5871), "Costa norte" (entries 5872-5912), "Costa centro-sur" (entries 5913-6067), "Sierra centro-norte" (entries 6068-6303), "Sierra sur" (entries 6304-6427), and "Oriente" (entries 6428-6582). The "Costa norte" may be thought of as the modern Province of Esmeraldas. The "Costa centro-sur" consists of the modern Provinces of Manabí, Los Ríos, Guayas, and the lowlands of El Oro. The "Sierra centro-norte" corresponds more or less to the modern Provinces of Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Tungurahua, Cotopaxi, Chimborazo, and Bolívar, and the "Sierra sur" to the modern Provinces of Cañar, Azuay, and Loja, and the highlands of El Oro.

The "Sierra centro-norte" also included the "Gobernación de Popayán" during the colonial period, or what is now southern Colombia, then an integral part of the Audiencia/Presidency of Quito. Similarly the Sierra sur took in Jaén de Bracamoros (part of Peru since the independence period) during the colonial period. I have listed only a few key works on sixteenth-, seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and early-nineteenth-century Popayán, Pasto, and Jaén and their districts, however, because their histories are usually written as though they always belonged, or should have belonged to modern Colombia and Peru, respectively. The "Oriente" takes in the modern Provinces of Sucumbios, Napo, Pastaza, Morona-Santiago, and Zamora Chinchipe, and as one goes back in time, those parts of Amazonia ceded to Colombia and taken over by Peru.

Volume two closes with the section on "Regionalismo." Although regionalism is touched upon to a greater or lesser extent in various works on the colonial and national periods, as of July 1997, there were surprisingly few studies that focus primarily on this topic (entries 6583-6593).

Volume three consists of four sections, "Historia urbana y estudios relacionados." "Economía y Geografía," "Etnografía," and "Sociedad," the latter three of which are largely given over to studies of events and developments of the second half of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, "Descripciones y viajes," the opening subsection of "Economía y Geografía," includes accounts of explorers and travelers from the seventeenth century onward and geographical studies of the nineteenth as well as of the twentieth century. Some materials from the first half of the twentieth century will also be found in the "Condiciones económicas" subsection and the "Etnografía" and "Sociedad" sections, not that all that many studies of continuing value in the Social Sciences were done prior to the 1960s. The first ethnography of a community based on field work, for example, did not appear until 1945 (item 8103).

"Historia urbana y estudios relacionados" is divided into "Obras generales y misceláneas" (entries 6594-6636), "Ambato" (entries 6637-6653), "Cuenca" (entries 6654-6719), "Guayaquil" (entries 6720-6892), "Ibarra" (entries 6893-6904), "Latacunga" (entries 6905-6908), "Loja" (entries 6909-6914), "Otavalo" (entries 6915-6925), "Quito" (entries 6926-7110), "Riobamba" (entries 7111-7124), and "Otras ciudades y pueblos" (entries 7125-7181). Even though Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca--in that order--clearly dominate the subdiscipline of urban history, a substantial number of significant studies of other cities and towns are known to exist, not all of which are listed here because I was unable to find copies or establish adequate descriptions thereof.

"Economía y Geografía" is divided into "Descripciones y viajes " (entries 7182-7473) and "Condiciones económicas" (entries 7474-7931). In general, works on late-twentieth-century economic policies and economic history appear under "Historia: Período Nacional: Siglo XX: 1960-." Deciding what should be included under "Historia: Período Nacional: Siglo XX: 1960-" rather than under "Condiciones económicas" was not a simple matter, however, and readers interested in economic developments from the 1960s through the 1990s should consult both subsections.

There is a substantial body of ethnographic and related literature on Ecuador, much more in fact than is registered here. The "Etnografía" section is divided into "Obras generales y misceláneas" (entries 7932- 7966), "Litoral," "Sierra" (entries 7990-8068), and "Oriente" (entries 8127-8144). Although general ethnographical studies of the coast do not seem to exist, at least not as of July 1997, there were several works on the three western lowland groups that have maintained their identity: the "Awa / Coaiquer" (entries 7967-7971); "Chachi"--popularly known as Cayapas--(entries 7972- 7980); and "Tsatchilas," or Colorados (entries 7981-7989).

In addition to the general and miscellaneous studies of Indians of the highlands, there is a substantial body of literature on the distinctive groups, specifically on the "Cañaris" (entries 8069-8087), "Otavaleños" (entries 8088-8111), "Salasacas" (entries 8112-8115), and "Saraguros" (entries 8116-8126).

Interestingly enough there appeared to be appreciably more ethnographic studies of Indians of the Upper Amazon Basin, especially of the Achuar and the Shuar (formerly grouped together as "Jívaros") than of Indians of the highlands (entries 8127-8144 for the Oriente at large and 8145-8302 for specific groups). The agreed upon ,and as of the first half of the 1990s still existing, ethnic groups are the "Achuar" (entries 8145-8159), "Canelos Quichua" (entries 8160-8177), "Cofanes" (entries 8178-8184), "Huaorani"--formerly known to the outside world as Aucas (entries 8185-8201), "Quijos Quichua" (entries 8202-8205), "Shuar" (entries 8206-8291) and "Sionas / Secoyas" (entries 8292-8302).

Ethnohistorical studies are listed under the appropriate History and Regional History sections or subsections. The Regional History subsections include materials on ethnic groups that no longer exist (e.g., the Omaguas). Unfortunately, upon preparing the subject index, I discovered that I had not been altogether consistent in assignation of ethnohistorical materials. Some therefore appear under the Ethographic section and subsections. My apologies in advance to the reader, but it did not seem worthwhile to delay the appearance of this bibliography simply in order to reshuffle some entries.

The "Sociedad" section is divided into "Condiciones sociales" (entries 8303-8398), "Estadística" (entries 8399-8513), "Higiene pública y salud" (entries 8514-8626), "Mujer" (entries 8627-8681), and "Población" (entries 8682-8814).

Volume four consists of the indexes (author, subject, and series) to this work. The indexes have been placed in a separate volume to facilitate consultation and utilization of this bibliography.

Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador intentionally takes in much more than historical studies and coeval sources. Yet that is how it should be. In the first place, almost all materials are grist to the historian's mill in the fulness of time. In the second place, the lines between History and the Humanities, on the one hand, and between History and the Social Sciences, on the other, are blurred in the Latin American countries. Intellectuals have been crossing the line almost from the beginning of historiography in Ecuador. Pablo Herrera (1820-1896) and Pedro Moncayo (1807-1888), for example, were literary critics as well as historians, and more recently novelists and short story writers such as Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco (1908-1993) and Nelson Estupiñán Blas (1915-) have also written history or what passes for history.

Furthermore, the cultivators of the "new history" in Ecuador have been heavily influenced by the paradigms and ideological baggage of the Social Sciences. This is not surprising. Many of the scholars responsible for much of the late twentieth-century historical production here within described and discussed took their professional training in Anthropology, Economics, Political Science, or Sociology--not in History--or were trained, at least in part, by Social Scientists. Furthermore, it could be argued that in Ecuador the past as perceived is as much a handmaiden of ideology and politics, as History as it has emerged as a discipline is driven by ideology and politics.

But this is not the place to engage in discourse on the strengths or the shortcomings of historiography in Ecuador. What matters here is that almost all, if not all, publications and doctoral dissertations in the Humanities and Social Studies on Ecuador are of interest and, sooner or later, of importance to historians.

In closing, it cannot be over emphasized that the historiography of Ecuador, "traditional" as well as "modern," is much more abundant than many Ecuadorianists--including myself until I undertook this work--realize.

REPOSITORIES AND RESOURCES

Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador is based on nearly four decades of research, more than seven years of which were spent in Ecuador itself. Over the years I have consulted many, but hardly all, libraries, several private collections, and several dozen archives and museums in the two primary cities of Quito and Guayaquil and in the most important of the secondary cities, Cuenca.

I first set foot in Ecuador in 1962. My initial interest in that country might never have born fruit, however, if I had not met and been captivated by the guayaquileña who became and remains my spouse. (Fui, vi, y fui vencido.) Because I made a promise to Carmen Victoria Flores de Hamerly to take her home as often as possible and because I continue to be intrigued by Ecuador, we have returned time and time again--most recently in July 1997 insofar as this bibliography is concerned--initially in search of material for my doctoral dissertation (entry 5975) and subsequently to undertake research on other topics.

I also undertook research for this and other work on Ecuador in libraries and other depositories in the United States (at libraries of the University of Washington, the University of Florida, Duke University, the University of Northern Colorado, the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Guam, Brown University, the University of Massachusetts, and at the Library of Congress, the Academy of American Franciscan History, the National Archives, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, and the John Carter Brown Library) and at one time or another in various archives, libraries, and museums in Peru, Colombia, Bolivia, Israel, Spain, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. This bibliography would be far less substantial, however, were it not for the CD-ROM and hard copy versions of the Handbook of Latin American Studies (Madrid: Ediciones Mapfre, 1995; Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1936-1951; Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1951-1978; Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980-), the National Union Catalog--indispensable for completing and verifying citations of older materials--and for the increasing number of online public access catalogs (opacs) available through Telnet.

I relied primarily on MELVYL and UTCAT and secondarily on SABIO and TOME. MELVYL is the more-or-less integrated online catalog or system of the libraries of the Universities of California and the California State Library. UTCAT is the online catalog or system of the University of Texas at Austin. SABIO and TOME are the online catalogs or systems of the University of Arizona and the University of New Mexico, respectively. MELVYL and UTCAT were searched systematically (i.e., by authors, titles, subjects, and series). SABIO and TOME were spot checked to flesh out incomplete records and to verify dubious citations not found in MELVYL or UTCAT, sometimes successfully, sometimes in vain. (N.B. I ended up limiting systematic research to "Western" opacs because accessing "Eastern" opacs proved to be problematic, given the difference in time between Guam and the eastern half of the United States and the amount of traffic on those systems. More often than not I could not get into Eastern opacs, and when I did manage to connect, I would be bumped sooner or later during the search session.)

As of May 9, 1996, the MELVYL system contained 5,628 not necessarily discrete records of ecuatoriana. On that same day, there were 7,023 not necessarily discrete records relating to Ecuador in the UTCAT system. The libraries of the University of Arizona and of the University of New Mexico also have substantial holdings of ecuatoriana. Again as of May 9, 1996, a subject search of SABIO yielded 2,022 subjects, with 4,047 entries beginning with or containing the descriptor "Ecuador," and a subject search of TOME, 2,316 subjects, with 5,063 entries beginning with or containing the descriptor "Ecuador." (There is nothing significant about May 9, 1996; it just happens to have been the day it occurred to me to go online to obtain these statistics.) Because many works have several subject headings and inasmuch as some records are redundant because of discrepancies in description, the actual numbers of discrete records of ecuatoriana in MELVYL, UTCAT, SABIO, and TOME are somewhat less than the above figures seem to indicate.

Ideally OCLC, or the Online Computer Library Center, should also have been culled for additional records and to complete and verify records that I had to set aside. But access to this bibliographic utility was not available to me in Guam, where I was an Associate Professor/Professor of Library Science between 1988 and 1998. In this regard, it should also be noted that the World Wide Web has augmented and continues to augment the number and availability of databases, another development, however, that occurred too late for purposes of this work.

Nonetheless, I am reasonably certain that I have seen one or more records of almost all books published in Ecuador, elsewhere in Latin America, the United States, and Europe on the history of Ecuador and related topics, as of December 1995. I have also seen many of the actual works themselves. But at the same time it should be noted that some important works have eluded me. In this regard, it should be noted that there are a number of official publications, particularly messages of heads of state and compendia of documents pertaining to their terms in office, that should have been included. But we remain very much in the dark when it comes to official publications of Ecuador, records of which continue to be woefully inadequate. The most recent guide, at least as of July 1997, to this country's monographic government documents, although still useful, appeared as long ago as 1947 (entry 148). Furthermore, records of other government publications, at least of the Latin American countries, in the National Union Catalog and in the opacs of the United States tend to be sketchy and more often than not, unreliable.

Turning to articles, in addition to the Handbook of Latin American Studies, I also worked my way systematically through the hard copy versions of: 1) Poole's Index to Periodical Literature, rev. ed. (6 v. in 7; Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1963) for the years 1802-1906; and 2) the title variant International Index to Periodicals / International Index: a Guide to Periodical Literature in the Social Sciences and Humanities / Social Sciences & Humanities Index (27 v.; New York: Wilson, 1907-1974), and its offspring Humanities Index (New York: Wilson, 1975-) and Social Science Index (New York: Wilson, 1975-), for the years 1907-1995. I also consulted: 3) the CDROM version of MLA International Bibliography; and the hard copy versions of: 4) Abstracts in Anthropology (Farmingdale, New York: Baywood, 1970-); 5) HAPI, Hispanic American Periodicals Index, vol. 1, 1970/1974- (Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications, 1975-); 6) Historical Abstracts (Santa Barbara: ABC Clio, 1955-); 7) Public Affairs International Service Bulletin, but only for the years 1968-1990 (New York: Public Affairs Information Service, 1968-1990); and its successor (8), PAIS International in Print (New York: Public Affairs Information Service, 1991-); 9) Benito Sánchez Alonso, Fuentes de la historia española e hispanoamericana, 3¬ ed., corr. y puesta al día (3 v.; Madrid: Publicaciones de la Revista de Filología Española, 1952); and Sánchez Alonso's successor (10), Historiografía y bibliografía americanista, which has had a confusing history.2

Therefore it is probable that I have seen records of almost every North American and European article in a book or periodical in the Humanities and the Social Sciences published on Ecuador through December 1995, and in the majority of cases the actual texts thereof. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of every Latin American article in a book or periodical published on Ecuador through December 1995, inasmuch as not all Latin American anthologies and periodicals are abstracted or indexed. Of course over the years I have worked my way through runs of many Ecuadorian periodicals and anthologies in the Humanities and the Social Sciences, but I was unable to lay hands on some serials known to contain historical studies or all issues of those serials I was able to consult.

In this regard, permit me to quote Bernard Lavallé:

Por supuesto, la ambición de todo trabajo de este tipo es la de ser lo más completo posible. Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, no dejó de acompañarnos el convencimiento íntimo de que la meta propuesta, la exhaustividad, no era sino ilusoria y que al final no faltarán algunos trabajos que, desgraciadamente, hayan escapado de nuestra vigilancia.3

And to add that I have already begun to prepare a supplement to Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador not only to maintain it as current as possible, but also to add pre-1996 publications of significance that I was unable to include in this work.

Insofar as doctoral dissertations are concerned, in addition to the professional literature itself and the above mentioned indexes and abstracts, I relied on the still useful, but regrettably discontinued, bibliographies put out some years ago by University Microfilms International: 1) Latin America and the Caribbean: A Dissertation Bibliography, edited by Carl W. Deal (1977); 2) Latin America and the Caribbean II: A Dissertation Bibliography, Marian C. Walters, editor (1980); and 3) Latin America: A Catalog of Current Doctoral Dissertation Research (1983). Unfortunately, the bibliographic descriptions, especially the collation statements, in UMI products are not AACR2 compatible in every respect. But I had to accept the data as given in some instances because I was unable to reconcile the differences in every case. Again it must be remembered that I did not have access to OCLC.4

Doctoral dissertations available only from their authors have not been included, given the difficulty in obtaining copies thereof. Unpublished licentiate or master's degree theses were also excluded, not out of any sense of snobbery, but because bibliographic control of "theses" as opposed to "dissertations" is still in the process of being established, and because I had already embarked on an ambitious enough task.

A MATTER OF STYLE

In preparing this work, I have been guided by the principles of bibliographic description laid down in: Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., 1988 rev. (Chicago: American Library Association; Ottawa: Canadian Library Association; London: Library Association Publishing Limited, 1988); Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 4th ed., (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1995);and The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), and therefore also in Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed., revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). Not wholly satisfied with any of the existing norms for bibliographic description, however, I decided to devise my own: a hybrid, as it were, of the formats worked out by advocates of International Standard Bibliographic Description, the editors of the Handbook of Latin American Studies, and some historians. Although sui generis, the documentation system I employ is a variant of the Humanities style (not of the author-date system).

N.B. Although Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador is AACR 2r compatible, I did not adopt the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules format in whole nor accept AACR 2r records blindly for three reasons. In the first place, I saw no point in including statements of responsibility in the case of works produced by one, two, or three authors. In the second place, AACR 2r is not always user friendly. And in the third place, I felt and still feel it absurd to be bound by the errors of omission and comission, especially those relating to "main entry" and "name authority," in AACR 2 and 2r records.

CITATION NUMBER: Each entry has been assigned a unique citation number, beginning with 1. The citations numbers are given in boldface. Numbers combined with letters have also been used for the purpose of keeping together series that constitute specific sets (e.g., the seven volume set on the restoration of the Iglesia y Convento Mayor de Santo Domingo [entries 3989 and 3989a-3989g] or the Libros de cabildos de la ciudad de Quito [entries 7066 and 7066a-7066l]).

ORTHOGRAPHY: Diacritics have been respected. So too have the peculiarities of spelling. The bibliographic particulars of works in European languages employing Roman alphabets (including East European variants) have been transcribed as they appear. Statements of responsibility, place of publication, and series statements, therefore, are given in the language of the work, and as they usually appear in modern catalog records. Entries in Russian and therefore in Cyrillic, however, have been transliterated. Apparently there are no works, at least no original works, in Greek, Turkish, Hebrew, or Arabic on the history of Ecuador. Glottal stops in American Indian languages have been transcribed as apostrophes (i.e., by the symbol ').

NAME OF AUTHOR: Names are given in library catalog or inverted order (i.e., family name[s], given name[s]). To have listed names in "normal order" (i.e., given name[s] followed by family name[s]), as observed by the American Historical Association in the 3rd ed. of its Guide to Historical Literature (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995; 2 v.), would be cavalier inasmuch as not everyone can be expected to know which is which, especially in the case of compound names. Forms of names known to be preferred by individual authors and editors have been respected for the most part. Fuller or more distinctive forms of names, however, have been employed when needed to distinguish between one author and another. Cross references from unused forms are given in the "Indice de autores."

Ecuadorian and therefore Spanish usage has been preferred. Hence a work by Carlos de la Torre Reyes, for example, is entered under "De la Torre Reyes, Carlos," not "Torre Reyes, Carlos de la." For name authority I have relied heavily on the cumulative author (corporate body as well as personal) index to Bibliografía retrospectiva ecuatoriana e índice acumulativo 1978-1985 (entry 20), and on the good offices of my friend and fellow bibliographer Dr. Miguel Díaz Cueva, who has been sharing his in-depth knowledge of ecuatoriana with me for more than thirty years.

DATES OF AUTHOR: Dates of authors are given in the "Indice de autores" whenever I have been able to ascertain them. The sources do not always agree as to the years of birth or death for every author. In cases of discrepancy, the usually agreed-upon year(s) or the year(s) Díaz Cueva assures me to be correct have been preferred.

ATTRIBUTION OF AUTHORSHIP: Anonymous works are entered under title. Works published under a pseudonym are entered under the author's real name, when known. Linkage is given in the "Indice de autores." It has not been possible, however, to ascertain the identity of every author who published under a pseudonym. I do not know, for example, who the Jorge Juan was who wrote on the first fall of Velasco Ibarra and the early days of the Páez dictatorship (entry 2471). Similarly, it has not been possible to establish fuller forms of names of all authors who have the same first and last names in order to distinguish between them. Even "middle" initials are not always distinctive. To wit, there are two "Eduardo N. Martínez": Eduardo Nalo Martínez and Eduardo Neptalí Martínez.

WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR: In a succession of works by the same author or authors, the name of the author or names of the authors are given for each entry. Employment of spaces or hyphens in lieu of names does not work well in a lengthy bibliography. To require the reader to scan backward or upward in order to determine authorship of an entry is to impose an unnecessary burden simply for the sake of adherence to style.

MAIN ENTRY: Scholars and librarians, including academic librarians, disagree as to principles of primacy. Therefore a digression regarding main entry is in order. Works authored by one person are entered under that person's name in inverted order. Works authored by two or three persons are entered under the first person named under that person's name in inverted order and under the second person or the second and third persons named in normal order, separated by semicolons. I decided to employ semicolons rather than commas to separate authors because even native Spanish speakers sometimes confuse given and family names. No less an authority than the Instituto Bibliográfico Hispánico, for example, has mistaken Jorge Juan Santacilia and Antonio de Ulloa de la Torre-Giral as brothers, simply because that Jorge Juan did not use his matronymic.

Works authored by four or more persons are usually entered under the work's title. Books authored by four or more persons, therefore, are entered under title except for conference proceedings, of which more in a moment. Articles authored by four or more persons are always entered under title. Works issued by corporate bodies are also entered under title unless: 1) the work deals with the corporate body itself or the corporate bodies involved; 2) the work is a law or regulation; 3) the work is an official pronouncement of a corporate body; or 4) it is a work of a collective nature reporting activities of conferences, expeditions, or events that can be defined as corporate bodies. The rule of four or more applies to corporate bodies too. Also when I lacked sufficient information to establish the responsible corporate body or was in doubt as to whether the main entry should be under corporate body or title, entry under title was preferred. (For a more complete discussion of the principles of main entry, see chap. 21 of the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed., 1988 rev.)

Conference and congress (including symposium) proceedings are entered under the established name of the conference, congress, or symposium. Partial or session-specific proceedings, however, are entered under the title of the corresponding publication, as are conference and congress (including symposium) proceedings for which sufficient data are lacking to establish the conference, congress, or symposium's name.

STATEMENT OF RESPONSIBILITY: Inevitably, therefore, some statements of responsibility have had to be included. Four or more authors are reduced to the first individual or entity named, followed by the standard "et al." within square brackets. Editor and translator statements are usually transcribed literally, but superfluous information such as titles and institutional affiliation have been omitted unless inclusion is needed for reasons of grammar. Also some serial titles, especially generic titles such as Memoria or Revista, require linkage with their corresponding institutions. So too do such generic series titles as "Working papers." Therefore, statements of responsibility have been added to serial and series titles on a need basis (see, for example, entries 496-501), but instead of the space, solidus, space (i.e., " / ") of catalogers, a comma followed by a space between title and statement of responsibility has been employed.

TITLE OF WORK CITED: Titles of articles, books, and dissertations are almost always given in full. Only a few exceptionally long titles have been truncated. Titles of books and serials are italicized. Titles of articles appear between quotation marks. Titles of unpublished dissertations are neither italicized nor set off by quotation marks.

EDITION: The edition of the work cited follows the title or the statement of responsibility in the case of a title main entry article or book, separated from the former or the latter by a comma.

SERIAL TITLE: Serial titles are given in full and italicized.

PUBLICATION DATA: The volume or issue number, or both, are given for the serial in which an article appears, followed by the year of publication within parentheses. Whenever ascertainable, the corresponding month or season of publication is given too. The place of publication, the name of the publisher, and the year(s) of publication are given for books regardless of when they were published. In a few instances of pre-1900 imprints, the publisher has not been specified because it was not possible to ascertain this datum, not because some style manuals permit the exclusion of imprint data for pre-twentieth-century publications. Who published or printed a work prior to 1900 is just as important as who published or printed a work after 1899, at least to bibliographers.

Angle brackets (i.e., the symbols < and >) are employed to designate temporary data in the case of what were or appear to have been ongoing but not yet complete publications at the time this bibliography was compiled. Every effort, however, has been made to close older records in the case of completed sets, records that no doubt will continue to appear as ongoing in far too many library catalogs.

PAGE NUMBERS: Inclusive page numbers for an article in a serial or a chapter in a book are given after the date of publication in the case of an article in a serial and following the publication data in the case of an article or chapter in a book. The number of pages in books (i.e., separately printed monographs) and the number of volumes in multi-volume works are also given.

SERIES TITLES: Series titles have been kept to a minimum and are enclosed within parentheses at the end of the bibliographic description. Associated institutions have been added when needed to distinguish between generic titles.

ANALYTICS: Authors and titles of specific contributions to anthologies and to conference or congress proceedings are given together with page numbers, when known, in contents or partial contents notes. Sometimes, however, author-specific entries are listed separately. Of course this is to be stylistically or format inconsistent, but again the niceties of style have been sacrificed in order to provide users with appropriate entries. Some "contributions" just seem to belong together whereas others appear to warrant separate attention. That may not be logical, but then there is little or no consistency in the world of bibliography, merely agreed upon but not necessarily adhered to conventions.

ALPHABETICAL ORDER: Word-by-word file order has been observed. Single word family names precede multiple word family names. Word spacing and punctuation have been taken into account. Initial articles are respected whenever they constitute an integral part of a personal name or of a place name (i.e., El Oro, La Paz, Los Ríos, etc.). Insofar as initial letter is concerned, traditional Spanish alphabetical order has been observed. Names, titles, subject headings, and series beginning with Ch, Ll, or Ñ follow names, titles, subject headings, and series beginning with C, L, or N. Works entered under a jurisdiction as a corporate body (e.g., Cuenca) are listed before works entered under a title or titles beginning with the same word as the name of a place (e.g., Cuenca).

INDEXES: Entries are indexed by author, subject, and series.

SUBJECT HEADINGS: Modified Library of Congress subject headings have been employed. The primary differences between orthodox Library of Congress subject headings and my version thereof are: 1) a chronology somewhat different from what the Library of Congress employs has been adopted, one more in keeping with how contemporary Ecuadorian scholars view the watersheds in their past. Also I am more inclined to resort to chronological breakdown by century rather than by such macro periods as "To 1809." 2) I have employed the subject headings "Economic history" and "Social history," broken down by century(ies), rather than "Economic conditions" and "Social conditions" whenever appropriate. 3) Towns and villages are identified by province inasmuch as not everyone can be expected to know, for example, that Pucará is a small campesino community in southwestern Azuay. 4) "Indígenas del Ecuador" instead of "Indios de la América del Sur -- Ecuador," has been used. Furthermore, ethnic designates currently in use in Ecuador such as Shuar or Achuar instead of Jivaro Indians are employed. See references are given in the "Indice de encabezamientos de materias" for readers accustomed to other terminology.

DATABASING VIS-A-VIS WORD PROCESSING

This work was word processed, initially using WordStar 4.0 and 6.0 for DOS. Subsequently it migrated to WordPerfect 5.0 and 5.1 for DOS, then to WordPerfect 6.0, 6.1, 7.0 for WINDOWS, and finally to WordPerfect 8.0 for WINDOWS. Had I to do it all over again, I would have used a database instead of a word processing program. Certainly using a database program would have made incorporation of additional materials as well as rearrangement of entries much easier. But for the longest time, I had to make do with computers that are dinosaurs by today's standards (not just 286s, but even 086s). Furthermore, no guidance or instruction in bibliographic utilities such as Nota Bene's Orbis or ProCite was available at the University of Guam. Also I had to purchase the majority of the more up-to-date, powerful, and sophisticated hardware (including quality printers) and software used in producing this bibliography myself because the administration of the University of Guam was begrudging in providing support. The staff of the University of Guam's Computer Center, however, was absolutely wonderful when it came to helping out with whatever they could.

NOTES

1Bohdan S. Wynar, Introduction to Cataloging and Classification, 8th ed., [by] Arlene G. Taylor (Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, Inc., 1992), p. 309.

2"Historiografía y bibliografía americanista" began as a section of the Anuario de estudios americanos, debuting in vol. 10 (1953) of the Anuario (Sevilla: Escuela de Estudios Hispano Americanos, 1944-). Between 1971 and 1990, Historiografía y bibliografía americanista appeared first as an annual and then as a semiannual in its own right, changing its title to Suplemento de Anuario de estudios americanos in 1987, and its enumeration at the same time to parallel that of the Anuario. In 1993, "Historiografía y bibliografía americanista" returned to being a section of the Anuario (50:1-).

3Bernard Lavallé, Bibliografía francesa sobre el Ecuador (1968-1993): ciencias humans, sociales y de la tierra (Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional: Maison des pays ibériques, 1995), p. 4.

4Subsequent to the closure of the database, I was able to access WorldCat, the public access module of OCLC. Although I was able to resolve some problems through the public access module of OCLC, WorldCat is not always bibliographically helpful inasmuch as it does not include statements of responsibility.

ABREVIACIONES

Abbreviations are those employed in Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed., 1988 rev. (Ottawa: Canadian Library Association; London: Library Association Publishing Limited; Chicago: American Library Association, 1988), and Reglas de catalogación angloamericanas (Washington, D.C.: Organización de los Estados Americanos; Costa Rica: Biblioteca, Documentación e Información, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1983). Spanish usage has been preferred over English usage.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA

DEL ECUADOR

Vol. I

por

MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

BIBLIOGRAFIAS

This section lists every bibliography of ecuatoriana in the Humanities, the Social Sciences, and the Natural Sciences published before Jan. 1996 and for which I was able to obtain or to establish a satisfactory description as of Dec. 1999.

As of 1999, the history of bibliography in Ecuador remained to be written. The only attempt to establish some of the benchmarks was Alfredo Chaves's indispensable Fuentes principales de la bibliografía ecuatoriana (item 54). According to Chaves the first bibliography "realizado en el Ecuador" was Juan de Velasco's Cátalogo de algunos escritores antiguos y modernos del Perú y Quito (Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1885; 6 p.). However, Velasco's Cátalogo was not a bibliography per se but the bibliographic apparatus of his Historia del reino de Quito (item 1532), reprinted from the 1841-1844 edition thereof.

It could be argued that the first Ecuadorian bibliography was that of Antonio de Alcedo (1736-1812). There are difficulties with this contention too, however. Although quiteño born, Alcedo was a Spaniard in every sense that mattered, and his subject was the Americas at large, not his colony of birth. Nonetheless, his Bibliotheca americana (item 2) remains a major source of information on sixteenth-, seventeenth-, and eighteenth-century publications on the New World, including the future Ecuador.

The earliest bibliography of ecuatoriana per se therefore appears to be Nicolás Anrique Reyes's 1891 Noticia de algunas publicaciones ecuatorianas anteriores a 1792 (item 8).

Bibliographic control of ecuatoriana also had yet and perhaps still remains to be achieved. The Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, however, endeavored to register national publications in the second half of the 1970s (see items 9-11), and the Cuenca branch of the Banco Central del Ecuador's Centro de Investigación y Cultura made a comparable effort in the late 1970s and the 1980s (see items 65, 12, and 20). Both attempts at bibliographic control were commendable, but far from complete. Unfortunately, the Centro de Investigación y Cultura's Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano died with the 1987 issue. That I have been unable to determine when the Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central del Ecuador's Bibliografía ecuatoriana or the annual cumulation thereof (items 9-11) ceased to be published is symptomatic of the lack of bibliographic control and of the difficulty in doing research in and on Ecuador.

When the first manuscript catalog of a library was compiled in Ecuador is unkown. I suspect, however, that it will turn out to have been an inventory of the holdings of the Dominican predecesor of the Biblioteca de la Universidad Central or of the Jesuit forerunner of the Biblioteca Nacional. The first printed catalog of a library was that of the Biblioteca Pública del Azuay, each vol. of which was individually entitled: I, Ciencias eclesiásticas (Cuenca: Impr. de la Universidad, 1890); II, Jurisprudencia (1890); IV, Historia (1890)--vol. 3 never appeared; V, Literatura (1891); VI, Ciencias; VII, Medicina (1891); VIII, Artes y oficios (1891). The most recent published catalogs of libraries as of July 1997, were the ongoing Diccionario bibliográfico ecuatoriano of the Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit" (item 26) and the CD-ROM catalog of the library of the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador.

The earliest bibliography of works on the history--in the broad sense --of Ecuador, albeit only of the colonial period, was Nicolás Espinosa Cordero's 1934 Bibliografía ecuatoriana (item 68). The first comprehensive register of ecuatoriana, including historical materials, was Carlos Manuel Larrea's 1948-1953 Bibliografía científica del Ecuador (item 110). The most complete as well as up-to-date bibliography of works on and published sources for the reconstruction of the history of Ecuador used to be Robert E. Norris's 1978 Guía bibliográfica para el estudio de la historia ecuatoriana (item 150).

In addition to the bibliographies and bibliographical studies already mentioned and listed below, see: Rodrigo Fierro Benítez's Catálogo del libro ecuatoriano de medicina: obras seleccionadas, siglo XVIII hasta 1995 (Quito: Academia Ecuatoriana de Medicina, 1995; 169 p.) and his Bibliografía científica medica ecuatoriana publicada en el exterior (Quito: Casa de la cultura ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión," 1995; 422 p. [Colección: Bibliografía científica ecuatoriana; no.1]); and Jorge Núñez Sánchez's La historiografía ecuatoriana (item 265) that lists and discusses some important works not seen by me.

1. Albán, María Elena. "Bibliografía de filosofía ecuatoriana," Revista de historia de las ideas, 2¬ época, 4 (1983), 263-275.

A roster of works that express philosophical views of Ecuadorians. See also item 46.

2. Alcedo y Bejarano, Antonio de. Bibliotheca americana: catálogo de los autores que han escrito de la América en diferentes idiomas, y noticia de su vida y patria, años en que vivieron, y obras que escribieron (1807), introducción de Jorge A. Garcés G. Quito: Museo Municipal de Arte e Historia, 1964-1965. 2 v. (Publicaciones del Museo Municipal de Arte e Historia; vol. 32, t. 1-2).

The first complete publication of this monumental work. Previewed by Gonzalo Zaldumbide in: "El diccionario inédito de Alcedo," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 2:3/4 (ene./abr. 1921), 71-93.

3. Alcina Franch, José. Bibliografía de trabajo. Madrid: Departamento de Antropología y Etnología de América, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1974. 74 leaves.

A working bibliography of materials on the anthropology and archaeology of Ecuador.

4. Alvarado, Rafael. Indice de traducciones ecuatorianas, 2¬ ed. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1957. 54 p.

A reprint; originally published in: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 11:17 (1956), 349-388. Lists translations from Spanish into other European languages of national works, mostly literary. The first edition appeared as: "Indice de traducciones ecuatorianas para el repertorio internacional de traducciones Index translation de la UNESCO," Boletín de informaciones científicas nacionales (Quito), 6:59 (1954), 505-528.

5. Alzamora C., Lucía. Ecuador, aspectos socio-económicos: bibliografía, 2¬ ed. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificación y Coordinación Económica: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, 1977. 212 p.

A revised and augmented edition of the author's: Ecuador, aspectos socio-económicos e integración económica: bibliografía. Quito: Sección Publicaciones, JUNAPLA, 1976. ii, 182 p. Both are bibliographies of materials on social and economic conditions.

6. Andrade Chiriboga, Alfonso. Hemeroteca azuaya. Cuenca: Edit. El Mercurio, 1950. 2 v.

A bibliography of nineteenth-century newspapers of Cuenca.

7. Andrade Marín, Luciano. "La bibliografía geográfica ecuatoriana y los geógrafos ecuatorianos," Anales de la Universidad Central, 23:328 (1949), 19-38.

A bibliography of works on the geography of the country and of works by national geographers.

8. Anrique Reyes, Nicolás. Noticia de algunas publicaciones ecuatorianas anteriores a 1792. Santiago de Chile: Impr. Nacional, 1891. 23 p.

Apparently the first bibliography of ecuatoriana as well as the first bibliography of early Ecuadorian imprints. It registered four Ambato and eleven Quito titles. Also published in: Revista ecuatoriana, 4:3:39 (mar. 1892), 112-122.

9. Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano 1975. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Biblioteca General, 1976. 374 p.

10. Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano 1976 y 1977. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Biblioteca General, 1978. 427 p.

11. Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano 1978 y 1979. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Biblioteca General, 1981. 143 p.

Items 9-11 constitute a serial, the complete chronology of which remains to be determined. Each vol. includes author, title, and subject indexes. The 1975 issue appears to be "vol. 1," and cumulates the first six issues of Bibliografía ecuatoriana, a bimonthly that began with año 1, no. 1 (ene./feb. 1975) and succumbed sometime thereafter. The annual cumulation--of which the 1978-1979 issue (item 11) may have been the last published--is also defunct. Together with its bimonthly counterpart this annual constituted a notable attempt to establish control over national publications. Not related to items 12, 20, and 65.

12. Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano ... 1982-1987. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1984-1991. 7 v.

Not to be confused with items 9-11. The Anuario for 1983 appeared in two vols. Indispensable for materials published in the 1980s. Each vol. includes an author index. Continues: Ecuador, bibliografía analítica (item 65). See also: Bibliografía retrospectiva ecuatoriana (item 20).

13. Arcos, Gualberto. "Aporte para la bibliografía del Archipiélago de las Galápagos," Anales de la Universidad Central, 56:296 (abr./jun. 1936), 629-644.

A bibliography of works on the Galápagos Islands. See also item 5849.

14. Ayala Mora, Enrique. "Ecuador," The Cambridge History of Latin America, vol. 11, Bibliographic Essays, edited by Leslie Bethell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 826-832.

A revised version of the bibliographic essay that accompanies item 2223. Covers the years since 1930.

15. Bákula, Juan Miguel. Perú y Ecuador: tiempos y testimonios de una vecindad, 1¬ ed. Lima: CEPEI : FOMCIENCIAS, 1992. 3 v.

Vol. 1 (410 p.) is entirely given over to bibliography. References to many other Peruvian and even more Ecuadorian publications are to be found in the notes to vols. 2 and 3, to which access may be had via the "Indice onomástico" at the end of vol. 3. Vols. 2-3 also constitute a balanced, comprehensive, more or less objective, and scholarly treatment of the boundary dispute between Ecuador and Peru, of the history of the Upper Amazon Basin, and relations in general between the two countries by a Peruvian intellectual. The author, a retired career diplomat, is respected in both countries.

16. Barrera B., Jaime. "Bibliografía para el estudio de la prehistoria ecuatoriana," Anales de la Universidad Central, 58:299 (ene./mayo 1937), 99-149.

A bibliographic essay on the pre-Hispanic period. Arranged chronologically. Reprinted in: Indianistas, indianofilos, indigenistas (item 7946), p. 63-116.

17. Bayle, Constantino. "Notas sobre bibliografía jesuítica de Mainas," Missionalia hispánica, 6:17 (1949), 277-317.

A bibliography of materials on the Jesuit missions of the colonial period in the Upper Amazon Basin. The works in question are also studies of and sources on the ethnography, geography, and history of the Oriente during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries.

18. Bibliografía de autores ecuatorianos. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1978. 474 p.

Lists works of Ecuadorian authors held by the Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador.

19. "Bibliografía de Pablo Muñoz Vega," Cultura, 9:25 (mayo/ago. 1986), 121-143.

A register of writings of and on the twentieth-century cardinal archbishop of Quito.

20. Bibliografía retrospectiva ecuatoriana e índice acumulativo 1978-1985. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1991. 400 p.

Supplements and provides a cumulative personal and corporate body author index to Ecuador, bibliografía analítica (item 65) and Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano (item 12). Unfortunately the commendable efforts of the Cuenca branch of the Banco Central's Centro de Investigación y Cultura to compile and publish continuing and retrospective bibliographies of works published in and on the country were curtailed by the political climate and economic crisis of the 1990s.

21. Bibliografía sobre administración ecuatoriana y materias afines. Quito: Instituto de Estudios Administrativos, Universidad Central del Ecuador, 1967. 95 p.

A bibliography of materials on public administration of/in Ecuador and related topics.

22. Bibliografía social, económica y política del Ecuador. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificación y Coordinación Económica, Sección de Investigaciones Sociales, [1973]. 2 v.

An important attempt to compile a national bibliography of social scientific materials, including historical. Unfortunately this work suffers from incomplete descriptions and misspellings of authors's names.

23. Bibliographie sur l'Equateur = Bibliography on Ecuador. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Development Centre, 1985. iii, 85 p.

Apparently a general bibliography; indicative of materials available in France.

24. Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales "Carlos A. Rolando." XXV aniversario de la fundación de la Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales "Carlos A. Rolando," 1913-1938. Guayaquil: Impr. i Tall. Municipales, 1938. 104 p.

A list of works of national authors in this major collection.

25. Biblioteca de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad Central del Ecuador. Catálogo de obras de la Biblioteca de la Facultad de Derecho. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1957. 100 p.

A register of works in the Law Library of the Central University.

26. Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit." Diccionario bibliográfico ecuatoriano, dirigido por Julián G. Bravo Santillán con la colaboración de Wilson C. Vega Vega y Víctor H. Vaca Bravo. Quito: Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinos Pólit," 1989-<1996>. <5> v.

An exceptionally comprehensive bibliography of national authors as well as a catalog of the largest collection of ecuatoriana in the world. It includes newspaper articles, pamphlets, and other ephemera. Indexed by author, subject, and year of publication. Not an easy tool to use, however, inasmuch as entries are entered by year of publication under author rather than alphabetically by title. Limited to materials held by the Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit." Tomo 1, A-An, consists of 6,347 entries; t. 2, An-Ba, of 8,387 entries; t. 3, Ba-Cam, of 8,339 entries; t. 4, Cañ-Coh, of 8,215 entries; t. 5, Col-Cor, of 6,333 entries.

27. Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador. Incunables y libros raros y curiosos de los siglos XV, XVI, XVII y XVIII, de la sección llamada "Hispanoamericana." Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1959. 108 p.

Describes pre-1800 separates, mostly European but also some early Ecuadorian imprints, held by the National Library.

28. Boletín bibliográfico ecuatoriano. Vol. 1, no. 1 (ene./mar., 1967)-v. 1, no. 2 (abr./jun. 1967). Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1967. 2 nos.

29. Bravo, Julián G. "La bibliografía mariana de los siglos XVII y XVIII en la Audiencia de Quito," Revista del Instituto de Historia Eclesiástica Ecuatoriana, 7 (1983), 83-115.

A major guide to Marian publications of the colonial period. At the same time a partial guide to early Ecuadorian imprints. Also published as a separate: Quito: [s.n.], 1984. 56 p.

30. Bristow, Clement Roger. An Annotated Bibliography of Ecuadorian Geology. London: H.M.S.O., 1981. ii, 38 p.

31. Bromley, R.J. Bibliografía del Ecuador: ciencias sociales, económicas y geográficas. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificación y Coordinación Económica, 1970. 61 p.

A bibliography of social scientific studies. Includes an author index. Also published: Talence, France: Centre d'études de géografie tropicale, 1970.

32. Bueno C., Ricardo. Ensayo bibliográfico de los escritos del Ilmo. y Rvdmo. Dr. Dn. Federico González Suárez, arzobispo de Quito. Quito: Tip. de la "Prensa Católica," 1925. xxviii, 143 p.

An annotated guide to the writings of the archbishop historian. See also item 165. Also published in a "2¬ ed.": Homenaje a la memoria del Ilmo. y Rvmo. Sr. Dr. D. Federico González Suárez: ensayo bibliográfico de sus obras y escritos. Quito: Impr. del Ministerio de Gobierno, 1943. 149 p.

33. Cárdenas Reyes, María Cristina. José Peralta y el liberalismo: análisis documental. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1988. 319 p.

34. Cárdenas Reyes, María Cristina. "La producción periodística de José Peralta," Revista IDIS, 18 (ene. 1988), 39-66.

Items 33 and 34 are bibliographies of publications of and on the Liberal ideologue (1855-1937). Item 33 also registers materials on liberalism and the Liberal period (1895-1925).

35. Carrera M., Lelia; and Lucila Córtez Miranda. "Bibliografía colonial ecuatoriana," Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, 63:308 (ene./jun. 1940), 576-652.

A bibliography of materials of and on the colonial period.

36. Carvalho-Neto, Paulo de. "Bibliografía afro-ecuatoriana: (1¬ y 2¬ entregas)," Humanitas (Quito), 4:2 (1963), 5-19.

37. Carvalho-Neto, Paulo de. "Bibliografía del folklore ecuatoriano: (1¬ y 2¬ entregas)," Anales de la Universidad Central, 93:348 (mayo 1964), 111-168.

Registers 179 items. Annotated.

38. Carvalho-Neto, Paulo de. "Bibliografía del folklore ecuatoriano: 3¬ entrega," Revista del folklore ecuatoriano, 1 (oct. 1965), 211-216.

Items 36-38 are the first systematic attempts to register folklore materials of/on Ecuador by the founder of modern folklore studies in the country.

39. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. Catálogo general de publicaciones de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1944-1965. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1965. 219 p.

An annotated list of works published by the Casa de la Cultura and its branches from 1944 through 1965. Includes notes on authors.

40. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión." Catálogo de obras publicadas por la Editorial de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión." Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión," 1980. 47 p.

Supplements item 39.

41. Castillo, Abel Romeo. "Ediciones del Canto a Bolívar publicadas en la vida de Olmedo," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 13:31/32 (1962), 60-72.

Apparently a complete register of coeval editions of Olmedo's Canto a Bolívar.

42. Castillo, Abel Romeo. La imprenta de Guayaquil independiente: 1821-1822, 2¬ ed. corr. y aum. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1982. xiii, 202 p.

The most complete study, as of July 1997, of early imprints in Guayaquil. This edition includes previously published essays by Gustavo Arboleda R., Pedro Carbo, Juan B. Ceriola, and José Gabriel Pino Roca on the early history of the printing press in the port city. The original or "first" edition was: La imprenta de Guayaquil independiente, 1821-1822: historia, bibliografía, catálogo, notas, facsímiles. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas, 1956. xvi, 204 p.

43. Castillo, Abel Romeo. "El primer periodista y el primer periódico ecuatoriano," Anales del Archivo Nacional de Historia y Museo Unico, época 2¬, 1 (1939), 126-137.

On El Patriota de Guayaquil, which the late Castillo had been in the process of reprinting year by year (see item 1801) and its editor, Francisco María Roca.

44. Castillo, Abel Romeo. "Los primeros diarios de Guayaquil (1860-1884)," Revista de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 2¬ época, 8:10 (1971), 5-30.

On the first daily newspapers in the port city.

45. Castillo, Abel Romeo. "Los primeros periódicos guayaquileños: breve catálogo bibliográfico," Revista de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 2¬ época, 7:9 (dic. 1969/feb. 1970), 29-54.

Covers the years 1821-1830.

46. "Catálogo de libros de filosofía en el Ecuador," Culura, 2:4 (mayo/ago. 1979), 389-415.

A list of philosophy books published in the country, by national authors, or on "Ecuadorian philosophy."

47. Ciudad de papel. 1 (ene. 1994)-. Quito: Centro de Investigaciones CIUDAD, 1994-.

A bibliographic bulletin, mostly given over to materials on urbanization.

48. Clagett, Helen Lord. A Guide to the Law and Legal Literature of Ecuador. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1947. viii, 100 p.

Considerably dated but still useful.

49. Cordero Iñiqüez, Juan. "Bibliografía cronológico [de y sobre Honorato Vásquez]," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 49 (1985), 29-61.

50. Cordero Iñigüez, Juan. Bibliografía ecuatoriana de artesanías y artes populares. Cuenca: Centro Interamericano de Artesanías y Artes Populares, 1980. xxii, 373 p.

Registers 999 items. Broader in coverage than the title implies. Well indexed.

51. Cordero Iñigüez, Juan; and Bernarda Crespo Cordero. Bibliografía azuaya del siglo XIX. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1989. 370 p.

A well done year by year listing of 3,701 items published in Cuenca and by cuencanos elsewhere at one time or another in the 1800s. Annotated. Indexed by author and subject matter. Exceptionally comprehensive inasmuch as the compilers included broadsheets, periodical articles, and contributions to festschriften.

52. Corkill, David. Ecuador. Oxford, Eng.: Clio Press, 1989. xxi, 155 p. (World Bibliographical Series; vol. 101).

Useful for general readers and beginning researchers, but too limited for post baccalaureate or advanced research. Describes 557 items in the Humanities and the Social Sciences. Each entry is annotated. Emphasizes English language and therefore by default general Latin American, South American, and Andean materials rather than Ecuadorian materials per se, reflecting the limited library holdings in Great Britain on Ecuador. Indexed by authors, titles, and subjects.

53. Cueva, Juan Martín; and Monica Sánchez. Bibliografía ecuatoriana sobre pequeña y mediana empresa. Quito: INSOTEC, Unidad de Investigaciones de Política Industrial, Centro de Documentación e Información, [1988?]. 134 p.

Indexed.

54. Chaves, Alfredo. Fuentes principales de la bibliografía ecuatoriana. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1958. 24 p.

The pioneering attempt to establish a bibliography of national, regional, and local bibliographies. Relatively full yet curiously incomplete. But less than bibliographic adequate control and the difficulty in laying hands on all appropriate publications have to be taken into account.

55. Chaves, Alfredo. Primer registro bibliográfico de artes plásticas en el Ecuador. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad, 1942. [40] p. (i.e., p. 77-116).

Lists 302 articles and books.

Published together with: José Alfredo Llerena, La pintura ecuatoriana del siglo XX (item 3889).

56. Deas, Malcolm. "Ecuador," The Cambridge History of Latin America, vol. 11, Bibliographic Essays, edited by Leslie Bethell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 474-476.

57. Deas, Malcolm. "Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador," The Cambridge History of Latin America, vol. 11, Bibliographic Essays, edited by Leslie Bethell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 274-283.

This and the preceding item are revised and updated bibliographic essays, the original versions of which appeared in vols. 3 and 5 of The Cambridge History of Latin America (items 2041 and 2396). They cite and evaluate literature on the first 100 years of the national period (i.e., from 1830 through 1930).

58. Delaunay, Daniel. Demografía en el Ecuador, una bibliografía; Poblaciones de las parroquias: Ecuador, 1950-1982. Quito: Centro Ecuatoriano de Investigación Geográfica, 1985. 16, 69 p. (Documentos de investigación, Centro Ecuatoriano de Investigación Geográfica. Serie Demografía y geografía de la población; no. 1-2).

The first title is a bibliography of demographic studies on the country. The second, coauthored with Blanca Carrera and Juan León, is a correction of the global results of the 1950, 1962, 1974, and 1982 censuses.

59. Delgado Santos, Francisco. El libro en el Ecuador: situación, perspectivas. Bogotá: Centro Regional para el Fomento del Libro en América Latina y el Caribe, 1987. 65 p.

For a more recent commentary on the status of book publishing and the book trade in the country see: Carl W. Deal's Academic Publishing in Ecuador. Albuquerque: SALALM Secretariat, General Library, University of New Mexico, 1994. 34 p. (Latin American Information Series; 4).

60. Destruge, Camilo. Historia de la prensa de Guayaquil. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1982. 2 v.

A reprint with an introductory study by Abel Romeo Castillo; originally published: Quito: Tip. y Encuadernación Salesianas, 1924-1925. 2 v. (Memorias de la Academia Nacional de Historia; 2-3). An exceptionally important contribution to the history of newspapers in Guayaquil. A treasure trove of bibliographic data. Also a major study of cultural and political developments in the port city in the 1800s and early 1900s. Vol. 2 includes an appendix on: "Revistas literarias, científicas, etc; Periódicos jocosos, de caricaturas etc.; Almanaques y guías de la ciudad."

61. Díaz Cueva, Miguel. Bibliografía de Fray Vicente Solano. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1965. 318 p.

62. Díaz Cueva, Miguel. Bibliografía de Honorato Vázquez. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1955. 192 p.

Items 61 and 62 are model bibliographies. They list and describe in chronological order and exquisite detail virtually every, if not every, original publication of Solano's and of Vázquez's oeuvre. Item 61 also analyzes Solano's Obras (item 5181).

63. Díaz Cueva, Miguel. "Bibliografía ecuatoriana sobre derecho societario," Memoria de la Superintendencia de Compañías del Ecuador, 1964-1979 (Quito: Superintendencia de Compañías del Ecuador, 1979), p. 321-327.

64. Economic Aspects of Agricultural Development in Ecuador: A Bibliography of Materials Dealing with Ecuador in the Land Tenure Center Library, compiled by the staff of the Land Tenure Library. Madison: Land Tenure Center, 1972. 28 p.

65. Ecuador, bibliografía analítica: indice periódico de publicaciones nacionales y extranjeras sobre el Ecuador. Año 1, no. 1 (jul. 1979)-Año 3, no. 3 (dic. 1982). Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1979-1982. 9 no.

Organized by disciplines. Includes analytics of anthologies and periodicals. Indexed by author. The inaugural issue covered publications of 1978. Continued by: Anuario bibliográfico ecuatoriano (item 12).

66. Espín Lastra, Alfonso R. "Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central: sección de libros coloniales que pertenecieron a la Universidad de San Gregorio Magno y luego a la biblioteca del doctor Eugenio Espejo," Cuadernos de arte y poesía (Quito), 9 (mar. 1960), 108-147.

Lists 489 early works.

Reprinted in: Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, 84:344 (1960), 363-398.

67. Espín Lastra, Alfonso R. Libros coloniales de la Universidad Central: catálogo general. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1963. 105 p.

Organized by subjects.

68. Espinosa Cordero, Nicolás. Bibliografía ecuatoriana: noticias de las obras literarias y científicas que forman el caudel bibliográfico de la Real Audiencia de Quito, hoy República del Ecuador, con breves datos biográficos de sus autores, 1534-1809. Cuenca: Impr. del Colegio Nacional "Benigo Malo," 1934. viii, 171 p.

A notable attempt to establish the output of authors of the colonial period. Arranged chronologically by century. Includes biographical data. See also the author's later Fuentes para la historia ecuatoriana (item 70).

69. Espinosa Cordero, Nicolás. Estudios literarios y bibliográficos. Impr. del Colegio Nacional "Benigno Malo," 1934. 265 p.

Partial contents: "Don Luis Cordero: ensayo bibliográfico, que se publica con motivo del primer centenario de su nacimiento" (p. 1-32); "Inventario bibliográfico de la ciencia azuaya" (p. 59-91); and the separately published Bibliografía ecuatoriana (item 68) (p. 93-206).

70. Espinosa Cordero, Nicolás. Fuentes para la historia ecuatoriana: primera parte, 1531-1809. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1952. 64 p.

The only part published. A basic guide to materials of and on the colonial period.

71. Espinosa Pólit, Aurelio. Datos bibliográficos de Monseñor Manuel María Pólit Laso. Quito: Edit. "La Sociedad," 1943. 50 p.

72. Estrella, Eduardo. Principales fuentes de la bibliografía médica ecuatoriana. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, 1988. 67 p.

73. Exposición del libro, organizada por el Ministerio de Educación Pública: biblioteca ecuatoriana que comprende los diez últimos años de publicaciones. Quito: Tall. Gráf. de Educación, 1940. 77 p.

Cover title: Exposición del libro ecuatoriano: diez años de publicaciones nacionales, 1930-1940. A year by year and subject by subject account. Reflects the acquisitions of the Biblioteca Nacional between and inclusive of 1930 and 1940.

74. Exposición del periodismo ecuatoriano. Quito: Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador, 1941. 119 p.

75. Exposición y feria anual del libro ecuatoriano: Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil. Guayaquil: Impr. y Tall. Municipales, 1933. 53 p.

It is not known how many "annual" expositions and book fairs were held, but given the adverse state of the economy in the 1930s, it is unlikely that there were more than a few, if in fact more than one was held.

76. Fauroux, Emmanuel. "Las fuentes impresas para el estudio histórico, político, económico y social de la Provincia de Loja," Cultura, 5:15 (ene./abr. 1983), 371-435.

Includes many little known materials, especially theses, local newspapers, and periodical articles.

77. Fichas bibliográficas de la historia del Ecuador y del Azuay. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales IDIS, 1978. 2 v.

Important because of the inclusion of some local and regional, not elsewhere registered publications. Contents: vol. 1, Obras generales, precolonia, colonia, independencia y Gran Colombia (iii, 117 leaves); vol. 2, República, estructura del Estado (Poder Ejecutivo), estructura del Estado (Poder Legislativo) (122 p.).

78. Fischer, Sabine. "Bibliografía sobre la industria ecuatoriana," Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 5:15/16 (1984), 263-273.

79. Freire Rubio, Edgar. "El autor y el libro ecuatorianos en 1992," Crónica del río, 4/5 (sept. 1993), 93-101.

80. Freire Rubio, Edgar. Desde el mostrador del librero, 1¬ ed. Quito: Edit. Grijalbo Ecuatoriana, 1990-<1996>. <3> v.

Vol. 1 subtitled: Lo que el país editó desde junio de 1987 a julio de 1990, but includes in appendix "Lo que el Ecuador editó de agosto a diciembre de 1990." Vol. 2: Quito: Fundación Ecuatoriana de Estudios Sociales: Ediciones Abya-Yala. Vol. 3 subtitled: Lo que el Ecuador editó desde enero de 1992 a diciembre de 1994; and published by: Sistema Nacional de Bibliotecas, Subsecretaría de Cultura, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura. Continues item 81.

81. Freire Rubio, Edgar. El libro nacional: ese desconocido: lo que el país editó desde enero de 1986 a junio de 1987. Guayaquil: Edit. de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1987. 91 p.

Items 80 and 81 are month-by-month listing of national publications of books and periodicals issued between Jan. 1986 and Dec. 1995, and, therefore, a quasi-continuation of items 16, 20, and 65. Primarily useful as guides to what was/is being published. Unfortunately, however, they do not include the majority of government documents. Both items 80 and 81, however, do include insightful and informative articles--originally published in El Comercio, Hoy, and La Hora as were the lists of publications--on booksellers and the book trade in Ecuador.

82. Gangotena y Jijón, Cristóbal de. "Bibliografía del periodismo nacional: adiciones," Boletín de la Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador, nueva ser., 3 (mar./abr. 1926), 173-176.

Supplements item 83.

83. Gangotena y Jijón, Cristóbal de. "Ensayo de bibliografía del periodismo en el Ecuador," Boletín de la Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador, nueva ser., 1 (dic. 1925), 46-86.

Items 82-83 are included here within for the sake of completeness. But they have long since been superseded, especially by Ojeda (item 151).

84. Gondard, Pierre. Repertorio bibliográfico de los trabajos realizados con la participación de ORSTOM: Ecuador 1962-1986 = Repertoire bibliographique des travaux réalisés avec la participation de l'ORSTOM: Equateur 1962-1986. Quito, Ecuador and Montellier, France: ORSTOM, 1986. 69 p.

Also sometimes cited as: Ecuador 1962-1986: repertorio bibliográfico de los trabajos realizados con la participación de ORSTOM = Equateur 1962-1986: repertoire bibliographique des travaux realises avec la participation de l'ORSTOM. See also item 339.

85. González Suárez, Federico. "Bibliografía ecuatoriana: la imprenta en el Ecuador durante el tiempo de la colonia, 1750-1792," Anales de la Universidad de Quito, 7:48 (jul. 1892), 269-279.

Registers 29 imprints. Superseded by Stols (item 187), but still important because it reproduces in facsimile the title pages of said imprints. Also published as a separate: Quito: Impr. de la Universidad, 1892. 36 p. And in: Revista ecuatoriana, 4:43 (jul. 1892), 265-279. See also vol. 7, chaps. 2 and 3 of the archbishop historian's Historia general (item 1388).

86. Graham, Ann. Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru. Austin: University of Texas at Austin, General Libraries, 1978. 26 p. (Selected References Sources, University of Texas at Austin. General Libraries; no. 33).

Considerably dated, but useful as an indicator of how little used to be available in the United States, even at a major research library, on Ecuador.

87. Grijalva Cobo, Adriana; and Samuel Guerra Bravo, "Bibliografía sobre Vicente Rocafuerte," Cultura, 6:16 (mayo/ago. 1983), 417-430.

88. Guía bibliográfica de geografía física del Ecuador, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Departamento de Ciencias Geográficas. Quito: Ediciones de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1990. 73 p.

Annotates articles, books, and reports published in the 1970s and 1980s. Broader in coverage than the title implies. Includes an author index and an index by provinces.

89. Guzmán C., José H. Tecnología agropecuaria del Ecuador. Cuenca: Gráficas Hernández Cía. Ltda., 1988. 343 p.

An idiosyncratic bibliography of materials on Ecuadorian agriculture, based largely on Guzman's own holdings. Describes many unpublished studies and sources.

90. Hamerly, Michael T. "El antiguo Rejistro Municipal (┐1835?-1861) de Guayaquil," Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 4:7 (jun. 1975), 64-70a.

Includes an issue by issue list.

91. Hamerly, Michael T. "La demografía histórica del Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia: una bibliografía preliminar," Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 3:6 (dic. 1974), 24-63.

Includes some materials, especially published sources, not incorporated in this work.

92. Hampe Martínez, Teodoro. "Sumaria bibliografía sobre los cronistas del Perú," Boletín de la Biblioteca Nacional (Lima), 40:93/94 (1985), 5-57.

Reviews and lists the original and the most important (in Hampe Martínez's view) modern editions of the chronicles of the Spanish conquest of the Perus and of the civil wars between the conquistadores.

93. Handelsman, Michael H. El modernismo en las revistas literarias del Ecuador, 1895-1930: ensayo preliminar y bibliografía. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1981. 132 p.

Primarily a bibliography (p. 37-127). Based on holdings of the Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales "Carlos A. Rolando," housed in the Biblioteca Municipal of Guayaquil.

94. Hart, George C. A Collection of Ecuadorian Laws at Indiana University. Bloomington: Indiana University Libraries, Government Publications Department, [1975?]. 80 p.

95. Holm, Olaf. "Bibliografía antropológica ecuatoriana," Cuadernos de historia y arqueología, 42 (1975), 379-406; 44 (ene. 1982), 131-153.

Continues: Holm's "Bibliografía ecuatoriana" (item 98).

96. Holm, Olaf. "Bibliografía antropológica ecuatoriana," Miscelánea antropológica ecuatoriana, 1:1 (1981), 174-186; 4:4 (1984), 161-172; 5:5 (1985), 219-237; 7:7 (1987), 183-189.

Continues preceding item (95).

97. Holm, Olaf. "Bibliografía de autores nacionales y extranjeros, relacionada con temas antropológicos ecuatorianos," Cuadernos de historia y arqueología, 21:38 (1971), 233-261; 22:39 (1972), 234-260; 23:40 (1973), 203-232.

Continues: Holm's "Bibliografía" (item 99). Continued by Holm's "Bibliografía ecuatoriana" (item 98).

98. Holm, Olaf. "Bibliografía ecuatoriana: sobre temas históricos y antropológicos ecuatorianas reunidos hasta el año 1974," Cuadernos de historia y arqueología, 24:41 (1974), 185-209.

Continues: Holm's "Bibliografía de autores nacionales y extranjeros" (item 97). Continued by: Holm's "Bibliografía antropológica ecuatoriana" (item 95).

99. Holm, Olaf. "Bibliografía: publicaciones sobre temas antropológicos del Ecuador o relacionadas con las investigaciones ecuatorianas," Cuadernos de historia y arqueología, 18:34/35 (1968), 240-251.

Intended to supplement and update Carlos Manuel Larrea's Bibliografía científica del Ecuador: antropología, etnografía, arqueología, prehistoria, lingüistica, 3¬ ed. (item 112). Continues Holm's "Bibliografía antropológica y miscelánea," Cuadernos de historia y arqueología, 17:33 (1967/1968), 285-306, apparently the first in the series, discovered too late to list separately. Continued by: Holm's "Bibliografía de autores nacionales y extranjeros" (item 97).

100. Ibarra, Hernán. Ecuador, bibliografía analítica agraria, 1900-1982. Quito: Ediciones CIESE, con el auspicio de ILDIS, 1982. 419 p.

Annotated and indexed.

101. Indice de tesis universitarias sobre temas económicas, 1900-1984, Julio Oleas Montalvo [et al.]. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1989. 409 p. (Fuentes para la historia económica del Ecuador. Serie Indices de documentación; 2).

See also: Solano de la Sala Veintemilla, Germán. Indice de folletos sobre temas económicos y sociales del Ecuador. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1991. 299 p. (Fuentes para la historia económica del Ecuador. Serie Indices de documentación; 3).

102. Inventario de estadísticas demográficas y socioeconómicas de la República del Ecuador. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificación y Coordinación Económica, 1974. 57 p.

A useful guide to published and unpublished statistical compendia as of mid-1974.

103. Itzstein, Gertraud; and Heiko Prumers. Einführende Bibliographie zur Archäologie Ecuador = Bibliografía básica sobre la arqueología del Ecuador. Bonn: Seminar für Volkerkunde der Universitat Bonn, 1981. 110 p.

Lists approximately 1,200 studies of the pre-Hispanic period published between 1900 and 1980.

104. Jaramillo, Miguel Angel. "Bibliografía de Honorato Vázquez," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 19 (jun. 1931), 290-309.

105. Jaramillo, Miguel Angel. "Bibliografía quiteña," Gaceta municipal (Quito), 19:79 (oct./dic. 1934), 7-29.

106. Jaramillo, Miguel Angel. Ensayo de bibliografía nacional. Cuenca: Impr. Municipal, 1925. 43 p.

107. Jaramillo, Miguel Angel. Exposición del libro azuayo: indice bibliográfico. Cuenca: Impr. de la Universidad, 1939-1940. xiv, 142 p.

Also published in: Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 33/34 (1939/1940), 80-230.

108. Jaramillo, Miguel Angel. Indice bibliográfico de la Biblioteca "Jaramillo" de Escritos Nacionales. Cuenca: Impr. de la Universidad, 1932. ii, 355 p.

109. Jaramillo, Miguel Angel. Indice bibligráfico de las revistas de la Biblioteca "Jaramillo" de Escritos Nacionales. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1953. 180 p.

Items 108 and 109 are catalogs of books by national authors and of national periodicals in the Jaramillo collection, now part of the Biblioteca de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay. N.B. Item 109 is an issue by issue account.

110. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Bibliografía científica del Ecuador. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1948-1953. 5 v. in 1.

Vols. 2-5 paged continuously. Registers 8,732 items. Covers through 1946. Contents: t. 1, Geografía, descripciones generales, viajes, datos estadísticos; t. 2, Geología, petrografía, mineralogía, paleontología, vulcanología, botánica y zoología; t. 3, Antropología, etnografía, arqueología, lingüística, folklore, prehistoria, historia antigua; t. 4, Historia general, historia de la cultura, historia eclesiástica, cuestiones políticas, etc.; t. 5, Apéndices e indices.

111. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Bibliografía científica del Ecuador, 2¬ ed. Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, 1952. 492 p.

Registers 9,300 items. Advanced coverage through 1949.

112. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Bibliografía científica del Ecuador: antropología, etnografía, arqueología, prehistoria, lingüistica, 3¬ ed. Quito: Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1968. 289 p.

Covers anthropological and related publications through 1966. Registers 2,235 items. Indexed by subject. Only vol. of third ed. issued.

113. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "Bibliografía de Cristóbal de Gangotena y Jijón," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 34:83 (ene./jun. 1954), 122-127.

A comprehensive listing of Gangotena y Jijón's publications, of which there appear to have been 72 altogether. Gangotena y Jijón's genealogies are especially important inasmuch as they were based on considerable original research and his own private collection, rich in manuscript originals and coeval copies.

114. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "Bibliografía de Gabriel García Moreno: en el centenario de su asesinato, 1875-1975," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:125 (ene./jun. 1975), 130-150.

Also published as a separate: Quito: Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1975. 43 p. And reprinted as "Bibliografía de y sobre Gabriel García Moreno," Bibliografía ecuatoriana, 7 (1976), 80-95.

115. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "Bibliografía histórica ecuatoriana: publicaciones hechas en 1953," Museo Histórico, 6:20 (jun. 1954), 56-73.

Lists 68 items. Annotated. Also published in: Boletín de informaciones científicas nacionales, 6:60 (mayo/abr. 1954), 609-632.

116. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "Dos incunables ecuatorianos y algunos rarísimos impresos coloniales en Lima," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 27:69 (ene./jun. 1947), 91-95.

Added a previously unknown 1759 Ambato imprint to the registry.

117. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "Más incunables americanos y otros seis impresos coloniales en Lima," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 27:70 (jul./dic. 1947), 297-305.

Added a 1757 Ambato and eleven early Quito imprints to the registry.

118. Larrea Holgín, Juan. Bibliografía jurídica del Ecuador. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1970. 178 p.

Registers 2,153 items. Indexed.

119. Larrea Holgín, Juan. Bibliografía jurídica del Ecuador, 2¬ ed. Quito: Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1974. 321 p.

Registers 4,040 items. Poorly proofed. Indexed.

120. Larrea Holgín, Juan. Bibliografía jurídica del Ecuador, 3¬ ed. Guayaquil: EDINO, 1993. 634 p.

Registers 6,319 items. Thematically organized. Subject indexed.

121. Lavallé, Bernard. Bibliografía francesa sobre el Ecuador (1968-1993): ciencias humanas, sociales y de la tierra. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional; [Paris]: Maison des pays ibériques, 1995. 156 p.

Registers 1,479 works published in France on Ecuador in the Humanities, the Social Sciences, and the Natural Sciences between and inclusive of 1968 and 1993. Indexed.

122. Ledergerber C., Paulina. "Tesis en antropología ecuatoriana aprobadas por universidades del Canadá y Estados Unidos," Miscelánea antropológica ecuatoriana, 3:3 (1983), 213-217; 6:6 (1986), 189-191.

A useful but incomplete listing.

123. León, Luis A. "Bibliografía nacional y extranjera sobre el indio ecuatoriano," Cuestiones indígenas del Ecuador, (item 7938), p. 263-302.

A 1946 bibliography. Registers 571 items.

124. León, Luis A. "Bibliografía sobre enfermedad de Chagas en el Ecuador," Carlos Chagas (1879-1934) y la tripanosomiasis americana (Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Sección Ciencias Biológicas, 1980), p. 63-71.

125. Libros y bibliotecas: revista trimestral de biblioeconomía. Año 1, no. 1 (mar. 1939)-? Guayaquil: Impr. y Tall., Municipales, 1939-?

"Organo de la Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales 'Carlos A. Rolando.'" his periodical ceased to be published some years ago, but I was unable to ascertain the particulars of its demise.

126. Luzuriaga, Gerardo A. "Bibliografía del teatro ecuatoriano," Cultura, 5:13 (mayo/ago. 1982), 227-232.

127. Luzuriaga, Gerardo A. Bibliografía del teatro ecuatoriano, 1900-1982. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1984. 131 p.

128. Luzuriaga C., Carlos; and Clarence Zuvekas, Jr. An Annotated Bibliography of Income, Income Distribution, and Levels of Living in Rural Ecuador. Washington, D.C.: Rural Development Division, Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, Agency for International Development, 1979. x, 97 p.

A preliminary version of item 129.

129. Luzuriaga C., Carlos; and Clarence Zuvekas, Jr. Income Distribution and Poverty in Rural Ecuador, 1950-1979: A Survey of the Literature. Tempe: Center for Latin American Studies, Arizona State University, 1983. xiii, 238 p.

Not only surveys but also "reviews and interprets the literature on income distribution and levels of living in rural Ecuador since 1950" (p. xiii). Therefore a major portrait of socioeconomic conditions as well as an analysis of the corresponding literature, including some government documents not here within listed. See especially chap. 6, "Case Studies" (p. 99-164). Unfortunately this data rich study is not indexed.

130. Madera, Luis F. Periódicos ibarreños. Ibarra: Tip. El Comercio, 1927. 34 p.

131. Madero Moreira, Mauro; and Francisco Parra Gil. Indice de la bibliografía médica ecuatoriana. Guayaquil: Edit. del Núcleo del Guayas de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1971. xxvi, 493 p.

A comprehensive bibliography of medical materials. Indispensable for research on history of medicine and related topics. Lists 6,663 articles published between 1883 and 1968, by subject and author, and approximately 1,500 books published between 1785 and 1968, by author.

132. Maiguashca, Juan. "Bibliografía selectiva de historia económica del Ecuador: dividida en épocas y área temáticas, desde 1521 hasta 1910," Historia económica en América Latina, 1¬ ed. (México: SepSetentas, 1972), vol. 2, p. 197-213.

See also item 254.

133. Márquez Tapia, Ricardo. Autobibliografía del Sr. Dr. Ricardo Márquez Tapia. Quito: Tall. Gráf. Nacionales, 1967. 137 p.

A bare bones listing of the writings, including unpublished, of the prolific Márquez Tapia, a physician turned historian, and of Ezequiel Márquez, his father.

134. Márquez Tapia, Ricardo. "Bibliografía ecuatoriana: bosquejo preliminar," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 1 (ene. 1921), 280-287.

135. Maxwell, Michael B. Bibliografía del Instituto Lingüístico de Verano en el Ecuador 1950-1980: con suplemento 1981-1985, 2¬ ed. Quito: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, 1985. 67 p.

1¬ ed.: Quito: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, 1980.

136. Medina, José Toribio. La imprenta en en [sic] Quito (1760-1818): notas bibliográficas. Santiago de Chile: Impr. Elzeviriana, 1904. 86 p.

Registers 43 items. Superseded by Stols (item 187). Most recent reprint as of July, 1997: Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1964.

137. Medina, José Toribio. Noticias bibliográficas, referentes a las primeras producciones de la imprenta en algunas ciudades de la América Española: (Ambato, Angostura, Curazao, Guayaquil, etc.). Santiago de Chile: Impr. Elzeviriana, 1904. xii, 116 p.

Registers six Ambato titles and two putative Guayaquil items, the first of which definitely was not printed in the port city as Medina suspected.

138. Mesa, Rosa Quintero. Ecuador. Ann Arbor: Xerox University Microfilms, 1973. xxxii, 142 p. (Latin American Serial Documents; vol. 8).

Indispensable, comprehensive guide to official and government published serials of Ecuador and a quasi-union list of North American library holdings thereof. It cannot be over emphasized that very few of the titles uncovered by Mesa appear in the Union List of Serials and the various supplements thereto.

139. Miller, Eugene Willard; and Ruby M. Miller. The Third World: Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador: a Bibliography. Monticello, Ill.: Vance Bibliographies, 1990. 33 p.

Too general to be of much use to anyone except beginning researchers and casual readers.

140. Miño, Wilson. La comercialización agropecuaria en el Ecuador: guía bibliográfica comentada. Quito: FLASCO: ILDIS, 1986. 96 p.

Annotates 110 works on commercial agriculture published between 1975 and 1986.

141. Miras, Claude de; Gustavo Rodríguez; and Roberto Roggiero. Bibliografía comentada sobre el sector informal urbano, 1¬ ed. Quito: CEDIME: ORSTOM: ILDIS, 1992. 179 p. (Guayaquil futuro).

Consists of 498 entries. Includes Ecuadorian publications on the informal sector of urban economies. Indexed by author and subject.

142. Miyata, Kenneth. A Check List of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Ecuador, with a Bibliography of Ecuadorian Herpetology. Washington, D.C.: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 1982. 70 p.

143. Muñoz, Bonifacio. Obras de autores ecuatorianos: catálogo especial de la Librería Sucre ... Quito: Tip. y Encuadernación Tip. y Encuad. Salesianas, 1920. 144 p.

144. Muñoz, Leonardo J. Hojas volantes que se han publicado en las diversas provincias del Ecuador, 1790-1920. Quito: Impr. del Ministerio del Gobierno, 1941. 16 p.

As of July 1997, apparently the only bibliography to have been compiled of broadsheets and fliers.

145. Muñoz Chávez, Ricardo. Bibliografía jurídica del Azuay, colaboradores: Rodrigo Abad Gómez, Juan Cordero Iñiguez, Diego Mora Castro. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1991. 380 p.

Describes 2,680 books and articles, licentiate and doctoral theses. Includes an introductory study on lawyers and legal societies in Cuenca. Indexed by subject.

146. Naranjo, Plutarco; and Carlos A. Rolando. Juan Montalvo, estudio bibliográfico. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1966. 2 v.

Vol. 1 is an analysis of Los escritos de Montalvo; vol. 2, Bibliografía montalvina, lists publications of and on Montalvo in chronological order through early 1966. Indexed. N.B. Naranjo incorporated and expanded upon Rolando's Don Juan Montalvo, 1832-1932 (item 174). Hence, the inclusion of Rolando's name in the credits.

147. Navas C., Bolivar. Bibliografía ecuatoriana de ciencias sociales aplicadas a la vida rural, la reforma agraria y colonización. Quito: Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agrícolas, Oficina Nacional en Ecuador, 1971. ii, 131 p.

148. Noia, John de. Ecuador. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1947. 56 p. (Guide to the Official Publications of the Other American Republics; 9).

A comprehensive guide to government publications of the 1800s and the first half of the 1900s.

149. Norris, Robert E. "Estudios norteamericanos sobre el Ecuador," Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca, 27:3/4 (jul./dic. 1971), 179-189.

150. Norris, Robert E. Guía bibliográfica para el estudio de la historia ecuatoriana. Austin: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Texas at Austin, 1978. ix, 295 p.

The most comprehensive guide to Ecuadorian historiography in its day. Lists 3,577 plus books, pamphlets, articles, theses, and miscellaneous manuscripts. Annotates some items. Marred by errors of commission as well as of omission, however. Indexed by authors and subjects.

151. Ojeda V., Alejandro. "Estadística de la prensa nacional siguiendo el orden cronológico y clasificado por provincias desde enero de 1792 hasta diciembre de 1940," Informe del señor Ministro de Hacienda y Crédito Público al H. Congreso Nacional (Quito: Ministerio de Hacienda y Crédito Público, 1941), 2¬ pte., p. 243-345.

An exceptionally comprehensive guide to newspapers. A province by province, year by year list.

152. Oleas G., Angel F. Catálogo modelo: Biblioteca del Convento de Santo Domingo, Quito. Quito: Instituto Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología; Brussels: Reino de Bélgica; Quito: Comunidad Dominicana de Quito, 1992. viii, 347 p.

Samples holdings of Library of Dominican Convent in Quito to exemplify how a level two catalog, employing current, internationally agreed upon bibliographic norms, should be constructed. Of minor utility as a subject bibliography, however, inasmuch as it describes only 250 items.

153. Patch, Richard Wilbur. Bibliography of the Andean Countries: A Selected, Current, Annotated Bibliography Relating to Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador, Drawn from Reasonably Accessible Works Published in English and Spanish. New York: American Universities Field Staff, 1958. 23 p.

Includes only eight entries for Ecuador. A good example of how little used to be available in the United States.

154. Paz y Miño, Luis Telmo. Bibliografía geográfica ecuatoriana. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1927. 69 p.

Registers 751 items.

Also published in: Boletín de la Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador, 2:10 (1927), 178-200; 2:11 (1927), 234-278.

155. Pérez Concha, Jorge. "Bibliografía histórica naval ecuatoriana," Revista del Instituto de Historia Marítima, 8:15 (dic. 1993), 135-164.

156. Pérez Sáinz, Juan Pablo. "Debate bibliográfico: urbanización, sector informal y pobladores," Ecuador debate, 11 (jun. 1986), 195-202.

157. Pinto Gamboa, W. Fernando; and Carmen Bejarano de Núñez. Repertorio bibliográfico de la literatura latinoamericana, dirigido por Luis Alberto Sánchez. T. 4. Cuba-Ecuador. Lima: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 1962. 242 p.

Includes title and author indexes.

158. Pita Sevilla, Edgar; Peter C. Meier; and Pablo Samaniego Ponce. Bibliografía artesanal del Ecuador. Quito: Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1984. 56 p.

159. Pons E., Olga; and Marcía Oviedo P. Catálogo colectivo de publicaciones periódicas en bibliotecas agrícolas del Ecuador. Quito: Asociación Interamericana de Bibliotecarios y Documentalistas Agrícolas, Filial Ecuador, 1973. 285 p.

160. Restrepo G., Marco. Amazonía ecuatoriana: reseña bibliográfica comentada, 1950-1992. Quito: Centro de Investigación de los Movimientos Sociales del Ecuador, 1992. 373 p.

A major bibliography of materials on the Oriente. Annotated.

161. Resumenes analíticos en educación. 1/30 (ago./sept. 1981)-. Quito: CIPTE; REDUC, 1981-.

The Ecuadorian equivalent of ERIC Resources in Education.

162. Rivera, Guillermo. A Tentative Bibliography of the Belles-Letres of Ecuador. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Council on Hispano-American Studies, 1934. 76 p.

The pioneering bibliography of Ecuadorian literature. See also items 166 and 199.

163. Rivet, Paul. "Index bibliographique de l'ethnographie ancienne de l'Equateur," Mesure d'un arc de meridien equatorial, 6:2 (1922), i-xli.

164. Roca Gutiérrez, Jaime. Bibliografía sobre planificación urbana de Guayaquil. Guayaquil: Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo, Dirección Regional Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, 1984. 2 p., 40 leaves.

165. Rolando, Carlos A. "Apéndice a un estudio bibliográfico acerca de los escritos del Ilmo. González Suárez," Dios y patria (Riobamba), 5:18 (abr. 1928), 117-133.

Supplements item 32.

166. Rolando, Carlos A. Las bellas letras en el Ecuador. Guayaquil: Impr. i Tall. Municipales, 1944. 157, xii p.

Arranged by Universal Decimal classification. Includes an author index. Suplemented and updated but not altogether superseded by Welch and Gutiérrez (item 199).

167. Rolando, Carlos A. "Bibliografía de Eloy Alfaro," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 11:26/28 (1958), 5-69.

168. Rolando, Carlos A. Bibliografía médica ecuatoriana. Guayaquil: Tip. de la Benemérita Sociedad Filantropica del Guayas, 1953. 387, 55 p.

169. Rolando, Carlos A. Catálogo de la bibliografía nacional: (Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales de Carlos A. Rolando) Guayaquil: Impr. Mercantil, 1913. 135 p.

170. Rolando, Carlos A. Catálogo decimal de la Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales. Guayaquil: Impr. y Tall. Municipales, 1947. 268 p.

171. Rolando, Carlos A. Crónica del periodismo en el Ecuador. Guayaquil: Tip. de la Sociedad Filantrópica del Guayas, 1947. 1 v. (145 p.).

A calendar of newspapers. Only vol. 1, 1792-1849, was published. But continued in item 172.

172. Rolando, Carlos A. "Crónica del periodismo en el Ecuador: año de 1850 a 1869," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 10:23/24 (1955), 55-94.

173. Rolando, Carlos A. Cronología del periodismo ecuatoriano; Pseudónimos de la prensa nacional. Guayaquil: Impr. i Papelería Mercantil, 1920-1934. 2 v.

Vol. 2 printed by: Impr. de la Sociedad Filantrópica del Guayas. Two works in one: 1) Rolando's first attempt at a chronology of the press, listing newspapers issued through Oct. 1920; 2) a key to pseudonyms used by journalists. See also items 175 and 419.

174. Rolando, Carlos A. Don Juan Montalvo, 1832-1932. Guayaquil: Impr. y Tall. Municipales, 1932. 22 p.

A bibliography. Organized chronologically. Updated by Plutarco Naranjo in item 146.

175. Rolando, Carlos A. "Obras anónimas y pseudónimas del Ecuador," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 6:8/11 (1941), 186-223.

176. Romero Arteta, Oswaldo. Bibliografía del P. Aurelio Espinosa Pólit, S.I.: y reseña de los críticos de sus obras. Quito: Edit. "Don Bosco," 1961. 194 p.

177. Romero Arteta, Oswaldo. Bibliografía [de Remigio Crespo Toral] Quito: Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua, 1957. x, 179 p.

178. Romero Arteta, Oswaldo. "La literatura ecuatoriana en las tesis doctorales de las universidades norteamericanas desde 1943 a 1985," Revista iberoamericana, 54:144/145 (jul./dic. 1988), 1011-1018.

An annotated list of dissertations on literary authors and literature. Arranged chronologically.

179. Rosero Jácome, Rocio; and Jackeline Contreras. Bibliografía sobre la mujer en el Ecuador. Quito: ILDIS, 1988. 164 p.

180. Ruiz, Lucia; and Nancy Sánchez. Pobreza urbana en el Ecuador: bibliografía nacional, 1¬ ed. Quito: UNICEF: CIUDAD, Centro de Investigaciones, 1994. 239 p.

As of July 1997, the most comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography on urban poverty, especially in Guayaquil and Quito and the major secondary cities.

181. Ruiz, Silvana. Bibliografía selecionada para el estudio de aspectos urbanos en el Ecuador: el caso de Quito. Quito: Centro de Investigaciones CIUDAD, 1981. iv, 66 p.

182. San Cristóval, Evaristo. Bibliografía, la controversia limítrofe entre el Perú y el Ecuador. Lima: Librería e Impr. Gil, 1937. 113 p.

Issued in fascicules. Therefore not all copies may be complete. A bibliography of studies and published sources on the boundary dispute between Ecuador and Peru.

183. San Martín Caro, Alejandro; and Rafael Caro. Relaciones peruano-ecuatorianas: guía bibliográfica de las publicaciones existentes en las bibliotecas de acceso público de Lima. Lima: Centro Peruano de Investigaciones Internacionales, 1985. 62 p.

A useful guide to materials on Ecuadorian and Peruvian relations in libraries open to the public in Lima, but not nearly as comprehensive as Juan Miguel Bákula's Perú y Ecuador (item 15).

184. Schwab, Federico. "Algunos periódicos desconocidos del Perú, Ecuador y Bolivia," Fénix (Lima), 4 (2║ sem. 1945), 894-909.

185. Sheppard, George. "Bibliografía de la geología del Ecuador," Anales de la Universidad Central, 46:276 (1931), 285-298.

Lists 104 items.

186. Smith, Ronna. "Prosa de Ortiz: bibliografía," Cultura, 6:16 (mayo/ago. 1983), 197-210.

A bibliography of the prose writings of Adalberto Ortiz (1914-).

187. Stols, Alexandre A.M. Historia de la imprenta en el Ecuador de 1755 a 1830. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1956. xv, 261 p.

A model as well as comprehensive but not exhaustive bibliography of early Ecuadorian imprints (275 books and 29 periodicals). In this regard, it should be noted that there are a considerable number of pre-1831 publications in archives, libraries, museums, and private collections in Guayaquil, Cuenca, and elsewhere not seen by or known to Stols, who apparently limited his research to Quito. Nonetheless, it cannot be overemphasized that Stol's work is the most complete bibliography of early ecuatoriana that had been attempted as of July 1997. It is also technically sound.

188. Uhle, Max. "Bibliografía ampliada sobre etnología y arqueología del Ecuador," Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, 42:267 (1929), 53-83.

Revises and updates item 189.

189. Uhle, Max. "Bibliografía sobre etnología y arqueología del Ecuador," Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, 37:257 (jul./sept. 1926), 167-177.

Describes 168 items.

190. Uribe, Maruja; Blanca Cecilia Salazar; and Margarita Hernández. Bibliografía selectiva sobre desarrollo rural en el Ecuador. Bogotá: Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agrícolas, OEA, Oficina en Colombia, Biblioteca IICa, 1979. ii, 203 p.

Broader in coverage than the title implies. Includes a directory of 121 organizations and lists 139 periodicals as well as 1,549 books and articles.

191. Vega y Vega, Wilson. Bibliografía de Dr. Julio Tobar Donoso. Quito: W. Vega y Vega, 1994. 181 p.

Apparently encompasses Tobar Donoso's complete output. Describes and analyzes 568 published books, articles (newspaper as well as periodical), prologues, and reviews in chronological order.

192. Vega y Vega, Wilson. "José María Vargas: bibliografía," Memoria, Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Investigaciones Históricas y Geográficas, 1 (1989-1990), 181-244.

Registers 839 publications of Father Vargas in chronological order from 1925 through 1988.

193. Viajeros, científicos, maestros: misiones alemanas en el Ecuador: Quito, Galerías Artes, septiembre-diciembre, 1989. Quito: Artes Centro Cultural: Proyecto EBI, 1989. 195 p.

A catalog of an exhibit of books, pamphlets, and other materials.

194. Villavicencio, César. Anuario de la prensa ecuatoriana. Guayaquil: Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 1893-1895. 3 v.

Covers the years 1892-1894.

195. Vivar Correa, Víctor León. "Hombres y cosas del Ecuador: noticia de algunas publicaciones ecuatorianas," Revista ecuatoriana, 4:41 (mayo 1892), 199-208; 4:42 (jun. 1892), 217-225.

196. Watiunk', Karus; and Juan Bottasso. Bibliografía general de la nación jívaro. Sucúa: Mundo Shuar, 1978. 192 p.

Also: Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1983. N.B. Abya-Yala is the successor to Mundo Shuar.

197. Watson, Gayle Hudgens. Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela: An Annotated Guide to Reference Materials in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1971. 279 p.

Useful for works published through 1960s, including some not to be found here within. Registers and comments upon 894 articles, books, and periodicals. Arranged by subjects and within subject by author, including issuing corporate body. Ecuador is the least well covered, partly because of the relative lack of bibliographic production vis-a-vis Colombia and Venezuela, partly because the University of Texas at Austin and Southern Methodist University in Dallas, where this work was done, had not collected systematically or well on Ecuador. Lacks a country index.

198. Welch, Thomas L. The Indians of South America: A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States, 1987. xii, 594 p.

199. Welch, Thomas L.; and René L. Gutiérrez. Bibliografía de la literatura ecuatoriana. Washington, D.C.: Biblioteca Colón, Organización de los Estados Americanos, 1989. xii, 291 p.

Beware the pitfalls in this and the preceding item. Unpublished theses, for example, are described as though they were published works. Nonetheless, both list many important and sometimes obscure materials.

200. Wiles, Dawn Ann. Some Geographical Aspects of Ecuador: An Annotated Critical Bibliography of Periodical and Serial Literature. Baton Rouge: Institute of Latin American Studies, Louisiana State University, 1970. 50 p.

A substantial register of pre-1970 articles on the geography of Ecuador.

ESTUDIOS HISTORIOGRAFICOS

Y RELACIONADOS

This section is given over to published materials having to do with the study and teaching of the Humanities and the Social Sciences in Ecuador as well as historiographical studies per se. Only a few books and articles on the study and teaching of the Humanities appear because there do not seem to have been more than a handful. Apparently this is because the Humanities, with the notable exception of Literature, did not attract nearly as much attention in Ecuador as History and the Social Sciences, at least not during the last third of the twentieth century.

Interestingly enough national historiography did not generate all that much in the way of publications either. There were many studies, however, of Ecuadorian historians, mostly biographical in nature. Until the 1970s, history in Ecuador was dominated by self-taught men of letters who were usually also men of action. Scholars of the late-twentieth century, mostly professionally trained, were often actively involved in politics too. Therefore almost all Ecuadorian writers of history have also been makers of history. Hence it is not surprising that not only have traditional Ecuadorian historians largely concerned themselves with persons and politics, but that the majority of writer-makers of history, including the professionally trained, should in turn be the subject of numerous biographies. Post-1974 lives of the writer-makers of history are cited below under "Biographies" as are older works of continuing importance. For a more complete listing of pre-1975 studies of Ecuadorian historians see Norris's Guía bibliográfica (item 150), p. 14-26.

The best survey of the traditional historiography of Ecuador was Adam Szászdi's 1964 article, now available in Spanish as well as in the original English (item 288). The best introduction to the "new" history, on the other hand, was Jorge Núñez Sánchez's 1994 La historiografía ecuatoriana (item 265). Núñez Sánchez's study is primarily concerned with the nature of history and the difficulty of being a historian in Ecuador in the late-twentieth century. His discussion of "la institucionalidad existente" is especially informative and enlightening.

The only comprehensive review of recent work on the colonial period was Rosemarie Terán's contribution to the 1993 Congreso Ecuatoriano de Historia (item 291), but see also Christiana Borchart de Moreno and Segundo E. Moreno Yánez's outstanding analysis of the "new" historiography on the eighteenth century (item 208). On the national period see Juan J. Paz y Miño Cepeda's contribution to the 1993 Congreso (item 270). On historiographic developments of the first half of the twentieth century, see item 2421.

Another study of some importance is Jeffrey Klaiber's "Estudios recientes sobre la Iglesia en Perú, Bolivia y Ecuador: un balance historiográfico," Histórica (Lima), 19:2, dic. 1995, p. 251-280. N.B. Klaiber includes studies of the history of Protestantism in the central Andean republics. Two other articles of interest are: Heraclio Bonilla's "Progresos y dilemas de la historiografía en el Ecuador: primera parte," Nariz del diablo, 16 (1990)--not yet seen by me--and Víctor Peralta Ruiz's "La historia en el Ecuador (1980-1990)" (item 272). Professionally trained scholars, Bonilla and Peralta Ruiz are Peruvians and therefore bring a somewhat different perspective to bear. Peralta Ruiz, for example, examines "recent" historiographical developments from the vantage of "lo andino"--a more appropriate paradigm than the in vogue at the time dependency model--and from that of a country where History at a discipline is more strongly rooted.

Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia (1991-) (item 491) has begun and hopefully will continue to revolutionize the study of history as a discipline in Ecuador. Six of the first ten issues of Procesos (i.e., nos. 1, 2, 5, 7, 9, and 10) include a critical review essay, beginning with no. 1, or an historiographic essay, beginning with no. 2 (see item 228). In additions to the studies listed below, see Jorge Cañizares, "Aportes historiográficos de la obra de Eduardo Estrella," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 10 (I sem. 1997), 123-129.

201. Alvarez , Silvia G. "Una década de arqueología en la ESPOL," Cuadernos del río, 4/5 (sept. 1993), 22-39.

Delineates and evaluates the activities of the Escuela Técnica de Arqueología of the Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral in Guayaquil (founded in 1980) during its first ten years, especially under the leadership of Jorge G. Marcos. See also items 280 and 324.

Reprinted in item 810.

202. Astudillo Espinosa, Celín. "El deán Juan Félix Proaño, científico, historiador y guerrillero," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 62:133/134 (ene./dic. 1979), 105-154.

A more or less useful source of information on the career and publications of Juan Félix Proaño (1850-1938), a riobambeño, a priest, a Conservative, a combatant in the 1895-1899 campaigns, the founder and editor of Dios y patria (1923), a self-taught paleontologist and antiquarian, and a staunch defender of Juan de Velasco. Apparently most, of not all, of Proaño's studies appeared as newspaper articles.

See also Carlos Freile Granizo's "Juan de Velasco: apuntes sobre una incomprensión," Revista del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Genealógicas y Antropológicas, 12:11 (jul. 1993), 19-36, a reevaluation of the Historia del reino de Quito, especially of Velasco's reliance on oral tradition and his thesis that there existed a Kingdom of Quito prior to the Incan and Spanish conquests. Includes a presentation and discussion of a heretofore unknown portion of the early-twentieth-century polemic between Jijón y Caamaño, the most important of Ecuador's first field archaeologists, an avid critic of Velasco, and Proaño, nominally one of the country's first scientific historians, an equally advid defender of Velasco.

203. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Historia, compromiso y política: ensayos sobre historiografía ecuatoriana, 1¬ ed. Quito: Planeta, 1989. 114 p.

An anthology of essays, all of which had been previously published, on major works of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Ecuadorian historians.

204. Barnadas, Josep María. "El P. Mario Cicalá (1718-?) y su obra," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 49:107 (ene./jun. 1966), 93-105.

Cicalá was the author of a major, late colonial period Descrizione istorio-fisica della provincia del Quito (1771), for the particulars of the long delayed publication of which see item 7248.

205. Barrera, Isaac J. Federico González Suárez; Pedro Fermín Cevallos. México: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia, 1968. 71 p.

Adds nothing to the following item (206).

206. Barrera, Isaac J. Historiografía del Ecuador. México: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia, 1956. 124 p.

An adulatory survey of the traditional historians Juan de Velasco, Pedro Fermín Cevallos, Federico González Suárez, and Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño.

207. Bedoya Maruri, Angel Nicanor. "El desarrollo del estudio de la arqueología en el Ecuador a partir de González Suárez," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:126 (jul./dic. 1975), 191-200.

A detailed, highly factual review.

208. Borchart de Moreno, Christiana; and Segundo E. Moreno Yánez. "La historia socio-económica ecuatoriana del siglo XVIII," Revista de Indias, 49:186 (mayo/ago. 1989), 379-409.

A solid review of the then mostly "new" literature, almost all of which dated from the 1970s and 1980s, on the demographic, economic, and social history of the eighteenth century.

Also published as: Balance y tendencias de la historia socio-económica ecuatoriana, siglo XVIII. Quito: FLACSO, 1990. 50 p. See also items 270 and 291.

209. Bravo, Julián G. "Contribución del humanista P. Aurelio Espinosa Pólit a la historiografía ecuatoriana," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 66:141/142 (ene./dic. 1983), 132-160.

A somewhat informative but hardly unbiased and far from complete review of Espinosa Pólit's major contributions to Ecuadorian letters.

210. Bravo, Julián G. "La Iglesia ecuatoriana y las relaciones con el Estado durante el gobierno de García Moreno, 1859-1863, por William M. King, S.I.," Revista, Instituto de Historia Eclesiástica Ecuatoriana, 2 (1976), 71-78.

A critical review of King's doctoral dissertation (item 5262).

211. Brubaker, George A. "Federico González Suárez, Historian of Ecuador," Journal of Inter-American Affairs, 5:2 (Apr. 1963), 235-248.

An objective evaluation of the archbishop-historian's historical studies.

Also published in Spanish as: "Federico González Suárez, historiador del Ecuador," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 51:112 (jul./dic. 1968), 258-267.

212. Caillavet, Chantal. "Investigaciones en etnohistoria de Ecuador," Revista andina, 2:3 (jul. 1984), 163-167.

Makes several enduring points. 1) Although archival research in the country has become easier to do than it used to be, it still takes for more time and patience than it should. 2) Primary sources may not be as complete or extensive as for the more important colonies of New Spain and the Perus. [Nonetheless, more and more sources turn up as more and more research is undertaken.] 3) Too many scholars have relied on Juan de Velasco's Historia del Reino de Quito (items 540 and 1532), accepting it as an accurate, detailed chronicle instead of recognizing it as an expression of proto-nationalism and therefore insofar as the pre-Hispanic period is concerned, a fable. 4) Almost all of the ethnohistorical research done, not just as of 1984 but also as of 1997, has been of the highlands.

213. Carpio Vintimilla, Julio. "┐Por qué no investiga la universidad ecuatoriana?," Revista del IDIS, 10 (feb. 1982), 107-131.

Examines and explicates the limited research that was being done in national universities in the 1970s and early 1980s. Attributes lack of research to the emphasis on preparation of practitioners, the lack of communication between universities and society, the lack of definition of mission, and the lack of support for research. See also item 237.

214. Cevallos García, Gabriel. "Algunos hechos y dos nombres en la historiografía azuaya," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 48 (1983), 81-115.

An appreciation of the oeuvre of Víctor Manuel Albornoz and José María Vargas.

215. Cevallos García, Gabriel. "Panorama del pensamiento histórico en el Ecuador, del siglo XVI al siglo XIX: (fragmento)," Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca, 19:3/4 (jul./dic. 1963), 431-460.

A precís of item 216.

Reprinted in the author's Temas históricos ecuatorianos (item 217).

216. Cevallos García, Gabriel. Reflexiones sobre la historia del Ecuador. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1957-1960. 2 v.

Insightful reflections on the traditional historiography, especially on the histories of Juan de Velasco, Pedro Fermín Cevallos, and Federico González Suárez, as well as on the history of Ecuador, by a leading historian of ideas and philosopher of history.

Reprinted with an introductory study by José María Vargas: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1987. 2 v. (Biblioteca básica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 35-36). Also: Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1988. (Obras completas, Gabriel Cevallos García; 4-5).

217. Cevallos García, Gabriel. Temas históricos ecuatorianos. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1987. 2 v. (Obras completas, Gabriel Cevallos García; 1-2).

An anthology of previously published essays on various aspects of the historiography and history of the country.

Contents: vol. 1, "Para entender bien al Ecuador" (1957); "Panorama del pensamiento histórico del Ecuador del siglo XVI al siglo XIX" (1963); "Programa de historia de la cultura ecuatoriana" (1964); "Historiadores ecuatorianos: Juan de Velasco" (1958); "Juan de Velasco e Iñigo Abad y La Sierra" (1970); "Teoría del hombre-pueblo" (1944); "La Audiencia de Quito: colofón de una guerra de cien años" (1966). Vol. 2, "El diez de agosto y nosotros" (1959); "García Moreno ┐conservador?" (1940); "Por un García Moreno de cuerpo entero" (1978); "El concordato Garciano" (1976); "Borrero y Veintemilla" (1980); "La era del Progresismo" (1980); "Alfaro y su época" (1980); "La ideas liberales en el Ecuador" (1960).

218. Collier, Donald. "One Hundred Years of Ecuadorian Archaeology," Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropológicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 5-37.

A survey of developments by one of the pioneers of modern archaeological studies of Ecuador.

219. Contreras C., Carlos. "Balance de la historia económica del Ecuador," HISLA, 5 (1985), 127-134.

220. Cordero de Espinosa, Susana. "Panorama de los estudios críticos sobre la obra de Juan Montalvo," Cultura, 5:12 (ene./mar. 1982), 15-93.

221. Crespo Toral, Remigio. "La conciencia nacional: estudio crítico de los historiadores ecuatorianos," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 1 (ene. 1921), 73-96.

One of the earliest attempts to establish and evaluate the history of history in/of Ecuador. Still worth reading.

Reprinted in the author's La conciencia nacional y otros estudios sobre historia (item 1923), p. 31-66.

222. De la Torre Espinosa, Carlos. "Región, clase y discurso: análisis crítico de varias obras recientes sobre el proceso social y político ecuatoriano entre 1930 y 1950," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 4 (I sem. 1993), 103-115.

A critical review of almost all, if not all, of the then "recent" studies on the 1930s and 1940s.

223. Drekonja, Gerhard. "Ecuador, ensayo bibliográfico," Ecuador hoy (item 2730), p. 283-313.

More of a historiographic than a bibliographic essay. Objective and perspicacious.

224. Duranti, Reginaldo. La veracidad del Sr. Dr. Federico González Suárez en orden a ciertos hechos referidos en el tomo IV de su Historia general. Quito: Impr. de Santo Domingo, 1894. 48 p.

A coeval reaction to the archbishop-historian's exposé of the scandalous behavior of some members of the clergy in the capital in the 1700s.

225. Espinoza, Leonardo. "La investigación histórica en el Ecuador," Revista del IDIS., 11 (mayo 1982), 19-26.

See also Espinoza's "Perspectivas de la investigación histórica ecuatoriana: siglos XIX y XX," Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 277-285.

226. Espinoza Soriano, Waldemar. "Etnohistoria Carengue y Cayambe: lo investigado y lo que falta investigar," Boletín de Lima, 9:49 (ene. 1987), 89-95.

Reviews recent ethnohistorical research on ethnic groups of pre-Hispanic Ecuador and delineates that which as of the late 1980s, remained to be done in Espinoza's opinion.

227. Estrella Vintimilla, Pablo. Una década de investigación social en la Universidad de Cuenca, 1¬ ed. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1985. 96 p.

Reports on the activities of the Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales.

228. Fernández Rueda, Sonia. "Historiografía de la arquitectura en la época colonial: algunas consideraciones," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 2 (I sem. 1992), 105-117.

A brief review of studies of the history of architecture during the colonial period. Emphasizes the contributions of José Gabriel Navarro and José María Vargas.

229. Flor M., Felix. "Por los campos de la biografía ecuatoriana," Revista, Casa de la Cultura, Núcleo del Chimborazo, 2:3 (nov. 1954), 43-56.

230. Flor Vásconez, José Joaquín. "El historiador franco-ecuatoriano J.M. Le Gouhir," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 68:145/146 (ene./dic. 1985), 202-244.

231. Flor Vásconez, José Joaquín. El historiador Luis Robalino Dávila. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1975. 32 p.

232. Gómez E., Nelson. "Los estudios regionales en el Ecuador," Memorias del V Congreso Nacional de Historia y Geografía del Ecuador (item 559), p. 23-34.

233. González Suárez, Federico. Defensa de mi criterio histórico. Quito: Archivo Municipal, 1937. vi, 284 p. (Publicaciones del Archivo Municipal; 12).

Published posthumously. Written in 1913.

234. González Suárez, Federico. "El escribano Ascaray," Boletín eclesiástico (Quito), 16:14 (15 jul. 1909), 527-545.

Juan de Ascaray (b.1743) was one of the earliest chroniclers of the Presidency of Quito (see items 1348, 1349, 4962, and 6934).

235. Granata, Massimo. "L'intransigentismo cattolico ed il mito di García Moreno," Bollettino dell'Archivio per la Storia del Movimento Sociale Cattolico in Italia, 19:1 (1984), 49-77.

A critical review of the posthumous mythification of García Moreno by conservative Catholics.

236. Guerra Bravo, Samuel M. "Apuntes para una crítica a los estudios sobre Eugenio Espejo, 1796-1976," Quitumbe, 4:4 1976), 59-83.

A dispassionate review of the mostly passionate studies of the philosophe and precursor, from Pablo Herrera's Ensayo sobre la historia de la literatura ecuatoriana (item 4647) through Ekkehart Keeding's "Espejo y las banderitas de Quito de 1.794" (item 4355). See also item 3200.

237. Hernández, Mercedes A. de; and Gaitán Villavicencio. Diagnóstico intencionado sobre la situación de la investigación científico-técnica en la Universidad de Guayaquil. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Departamento de Planificación Universitaria, 1986. 177, [63] p.

238. Historiografía ecuatoriana, estudio introductorio y selección, Rodolfo Agoglia. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1985. 564 p. (Biblioteca básica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 25).

Exemplifies and delineates the state of historiography in Ecuador, as of the mid-1980s, through the reproduction of representative texts by national authors and introductory comments by Agoglia.

239. Idrovo Urigüen, Jaime. "Panorama histórico de la arqueología ecuatoriana," Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Sección del Azuay, 8 (1989), 9-107.

A solid survey of the history of archaeology in and on Ecuador.

240. La Investigación económica en el Ecuador, Germánico Salgado [et al.], 1¬ ed. Quito: ILDIS, 1989. 469 p.

A comprehensive listing and analysis of economic research in Ecuador during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s.

241. La Investigación socio-económica en el Ecuador: reflexiones acerca del método, selección de textos e introducción, Fernando Rosero Garcés. Quito: Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Facultad de Economía, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1982. 162 p.

242. Jerves, Alfonso María. "Historia general de la República del Ecuador: (observaciones histórico-críticas)," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 5:17 (dic. 1930), 140-160; 5:18 (abr. 1931), 140-160; 5:19 (jun. 1931), 213-236; 5:20 (ago. 1931), 325-342; 6:21 (nov. 1931), 36-64; 6:22 (ene. 1932), 132-162; 6:23 (mar. 1932), 214-229.

Continued in: Oriente dominicano, 9:40 (ene./feb. 1936), 174-176; 9:41 (mar./abr. 1936), 209-212; 9:42 (mayo/jun. 1936), 250-252; 9:43/44 (jul./oct. 1936), 312-314.

Glosses and critiques González Suárez's Historia general (item 1388).

243. Jijón y Caamaño, Jacinto. "Examen crítico de la veracidad de la Historia del Reino de Quito del P. Juan de Velasco de la Compañía de Jesús," Boletín de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Históricos Americanos, 1:1 (jun./jul. 1918), 33-63.

As anti and vehement yet at the same time as well founded a rejection of Velasco's pre-Hispanic Kingdom of Quito as one is likely to find in the literature. "Es la historia de los shyris fábula perniciosa que urge borrar de todo libro serio ..." (p. 62).

244. Jiménez, Nicolás. "La biografía en el Ecuador," América (Quito), 10:60/61 (1935), 152-164.

A discourse on the role of biography in national letters. Stresses the importance of "great men" and the need to write up their exemplary lives. Jiménez was not altogether an ingenue, however. According to him, Ecuador has had only a handful of "great men." Examplifies the mentality and approach of all too many of the country's biographers.

Reprinted in: Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 19:55 (ene./jun. 1940), 109-124.

245. Kennedy Troya, Alexandra. "Archivos eclesiásticos e historia del arte ecuatoriano aplicada: el caso del Convento de Santo Domingo de Quito," Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Sección del Azuay, 9 (1992), 9-25.

A cogent review of the historiography of art history of/in Ecuador as well as a report on the author's activities and efforts to make a go of it as an art historian.

246. Landázuri Camacho, Carlos. "La historiografía ecuatoriana: (una apretada visión de conjunto)," Quitumbe, 6 (1987), 57-69.

A sketchy but nonetheless insightful review of the historiography of Ecuador from the chroniclers of the conquest through the cultivators of the "new" history.

247. Landázuri Camacho, Carlos; Cristóbal Landázuri N.; and Guadalupe Soasti. "Tres comentarios a la Historia demográfica y económica de la Audiencia de Quito de Robson B. Tyrer," Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 4:7 (1990), 283-296.

An extended review of Tyrer's Historia demográfica y económica (item 5427). Evaluates and partially updates Tyrer's findings in accordance with subsequent research.

248. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Las biografías de Santa Mariana de Jesús. Quito: Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1970. 172 p.

Analyzes biographical studies and hagiographies of the "Azucena de Quito." Includes a summary of the life of the saint and a chapter on "Fuentes para las biografías de Mariana de Jesús: los procesos."

249. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "Introducción y notas a la Relación de Miguel de Estete, sobre el descubrimiento y la conquista del Perú," Boletín de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Históricos Americanos, 1:3 (oct./dic. 1918), 300-350.

The introduction to Estete's El descubrimiento y conquista del Perú published for the first time by Larrea in Quito a year later (1919) in what Means (in item 258) describes as "a splendid edition, in transcript and in facsimile, with important introductory material and terminal [i.e., end] notes, of the 1535 Ms."

250. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "El padre Juan de Velasco y su Historia del Reino de Quito," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 5-23.

A useful biobibliography and a more or less objective assessment of Ecuador's first historian.

251. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "Reseña sintética del desarrollo de los estudios etnológicos en el Ecuador," Boletín de investigaciones científicas nacionales (Quito), 6:56 (1953), 159-167.

252. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Tres historiadores: Velasco, González Suárez, Jijón y Caamaño, prólogo de Jorge Salvador Lara. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión," 1988. 322 p.

A posthumous collection of Larrea's biobibliographical studies of Father Velasco, of the archbishop-historian (González Suárez), and of the first field archaeologist in Ecuador (Jijón y Caamaño).

253. López-Ocón Cabrera, Leoncio. "Las actividades americanistas del naturalista español Marcos Jiménez de la Espada," La Ciencia española en ultramar: actas de las I Jornadas sobre España y las expediciones científicas en América y Filipinas (Madrid: Doce Calles, 1991), p. 362-380.

An appreciation of the life and oeuvre of the compiler and editor of the classic Relaciones geográficas de Indias: Perú (item 1406).

254. Maiguashca, Juan. "Breves apuntes sobre la historia económica en el Ecuador," Historia económica en América Latina, 1¬ ed. (México: SepSetentas, 1972), vol. 1, p. 142-162.

A pioneering examination of the status of economic historiography in Ecuador, barely nascent at the time Maiguashca wrote this essay. See also item 132.

Reprinted (but not updated) as: "Breves apuntes sobre la situación de la historia económica en el Ecuador," Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 1:2 (1977), 93-105.

255. Márquez, Ezequiel. "Historia del Ecuador," Gaceta municipal (Quito), 19:79 (oct./dic. 1934), 207-225.

Reports on author's work as a member of the commission formed by an act of Congress in 1921 to prepare an "official," revised, and up-to-date edition--not that one ever was--of Pedro Fermín Cevallos's Resumen de la historia del Ecuador (item 553).

256. Martínez Borrero, Juan. "La investigación de la cultura popular en el Ecuador," Artesanías de América, 20/21 (abr. 1986), 21-40.

257. Mayor López, Carlos. La obra lexicográfica de Antonio de Alcedo (1735-1812). 1991. 295 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--State University of New York, Albany.

258. Means, Philip Ainsworth. "Biblioteca Andina: Essays on the Lives and Works of the Chroniclers, or, The Writers of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Who Treated of the Prehispanic History and Culture of the Andean Countries," Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 29 (May 1928), 271-525.

Has long since become a classic. Although dated insofar as more recent versions of the chroniclers are concerned, still very much worth consulting inasmuch as Means was a perspicacious commentator.

Reprinted as a book under the same title with the same pagination: Detroit: Blaine Ethridge, 1973.

259. Merino, Luis. "The Relation between the Noticias secretas and the Viaje a la América meridional," The Americas: a Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 13:2 (Oct. 1956), 111-125.

A critical analysis of Juan and Ulloa's Relación histórica del viaje a la América Meridional (item 7382) and their Noticias secretas de América (item 7330), the authorship of both of which Merino attributes entirely to Ulloa and of the extent to which either work may be said to have been based on personal observation. N.B. Merino maintains that the 1826 edition of the Noticias secretas is faithful to the manuscript version used by Barry. See also item 5110.

260. Moreno Egas, Jorge. "Cristóbal de Gangotena y Jijón y los estudios genealógicos en el país," Revista del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Genealógicas y Antropológicas, 4/5:6 (dic. 1985), 1-4.

An appreciation of the genealogical work of Gangotena y Jijón (1884-1954).

261. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. Antropología ecuatoriana: pasado y presente. Quito: Edit. Ediguías, 1992. 136 p.

A solid account of the emergence of anthropology, archaeology, and ethnohistory as disciplines, their historical antecedents, and the state of anthropological, archaeological, and ethnohistorical research in Ecuador as of the early 1990s.

A preliminary version appeared as: "Pasado y presente de la antropología ecuatoriana: notas para su historia," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 71:151/152(ene./dic. 1988), 303-394.

262. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. "La etnohistoria y el protagonismo de los pueblos colonizados: contribución en el Ecuador," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 53-73.

An important statement as to the then recent and current status of ethnohistory and history as disciplines and professions in Ecuador by a leading Ecuadorian ethnohistorian.

263. Naranjo, Marcelo F. "Ideología de la investigación en el Ecuador," Cultura, 3:7 (mayo/ago. 1980), 196-206.

An important delineation of the ideological constraints to which research was and may still be subject in Ecuador. During the 1960s and 1970s the focus of government agency research was ideologically driven and the token amount the government allocated to state universities for research was a reflection of the State's negative view of the antiestablish-mentarianism of academicians, for example.

264. Navarro, José Gabriel. "El estado actual de los estudios históricos en el Ecuador y su importancia para la historia de España," Boletín del Instituto Nacional Mejía, ser. 7, 2:23/26 (ene./abr. 1935), 85-109.

Navarro's only statement on the state of historiography in Ecuador. Delimited to studies on the colonial period.

Reprinted in his: Estudios históricos, presentación por Jorge Salvador Lara, recopilación por Wilson Vega (Quito: Aymesa; Academia Nacional de Historia, 1995), p. 21-53.

265. Núñez Sánchez, Jorge. La historiografía ecuatoriana contemporánea (1970-1994). Quito: Ediciones de la FAU, 1994. 135 p.

A major review of late-twentieth-century works by Ecuadorian or national scholars who cultivate the past and Ecuadorianists or foreign historians by one of the leading national cultivators of the "new history." Especially concerned with "trends" (i.e., ideological and theoretical frameworks), approaches to the past, and types of history. Includes a substantial bibliography (p. 57-132).

The text under the same title--but not the accompanying bibliography--also appeared in: Anuario de estudios americanos, 53:1 (1996), 277-308.

266. Ortiz Crespo, Gonzalo. "La construccción de la historia social en el Ecuador," Economía y desarrollo (Quito), 1:2 (nov. 1979), 9-30.

An important commentary on works published by Ecuadorians and Ecuatorianists on the political economy and social history of the country. Primarily concerned with those studies that attempt to provide a theoretical framework, however incomplete, for understanding the "process of [Ecuador's] development" or that focus on the nineteenth century.

267. Ospina, Pablo. "Imaginarios nacionalistas: historia y significados nacionales en Ecuador, siglos XIX y XX," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 9 (II sem. 1996), 111-124.

A critical review of the role of history, especially of officially sponsored histories, in the formation of nationalism in Ecuador. Emphasizes the boundary dispute issue and views of indigenous groups.

268. Pachano, Simón. "Ciencias sociales y políticas en el Ecuador," Ciencias sociales y políticas en América Latina (Quito: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, 1987), p. 48-64.

An exceptionally insightful, highly suggestive outline of political, socioeconomic, and Social Scientific trends and developments and relationships between politics and intellectuals, the state and the Social Sciences in Ecuador from the advent of the Liberals through the late-twentieth century.

269. Pacheco Prado, Lucas. "El desarrollo de la investigación social en el Ecuador: apuntes para su estudio," Revista del IDIS, 10 (feb. 1982), 51-74.

A superficial review of the emergence of social scientific research in the twentieth century, beginning with the publication of Espinosa Tamayo's Psicología y sociología del pueblo ecuatoriano in 1916 (item 8324).

270. Paz y Miño Cepeda, Juan J. "La historiografía económica del Ecuador sobre el s. XIX y XX en los últimos 25 años," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 75-115.

An insightful analysis of late-twentieth century studies of the economic history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

271. Peñaloza Bretel, Marco Antonio. "La investigación historiográfica sobre la hacienda serrana ecuatoriana del s. XIX," Procesos, 7 (I sem. 1995), 35-58.

A solid review of the relatively limited work that had been done as of the mid 1990s on the history of rural estates in the highlands in the 1800s. Thematically and chronologically specific. Includes a bibliography.

272. Peralta Ruiz, Víctor. "La historia en el Ecuador (1980-1990)," Revista andina, 9:1 (jul. 1991), 261-274.

A favorable yet nonetheless critical analysis of the advances of the 1980s in terms of the ideological debates prevalent in Ecuadorian (but not necessarily Ecuadorianist) historiography during the decade in question. The author is a Peruvian and an Andeanist.

273. "Perspectivas de la investigación histórica ecuatoriana: siglos XIX y XX," Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 277-285.

The conclusions of the 1980 "Simposio sobre el Ecuador en 1830."

274. Ponce Ribadeneira, Alfredo. "Algunas reflexiones sobre la obra Noticias secretas de Amércia," Revista, Instituto de Historia Eclesiástica Ecuatoriana, 2 (1976), 79-82.

Maintains that the Barry edition or 1826 version is not entirely faithful to the original text and that Juan and Ulloa's treatise is not altogether accurate.

275. Porras Barrenechea, Raúl. Los cronistas del Perú, 1528-1650, y otros ensayos, edición, prólogo y notas de Franklin Pease G.Y., revisada, aumentada y actualizada por Oswaldo Holguín Callo, bibliografía de Félix Alvarez Brun y Graciela Sánchez Cerro. Lima: Banco de Crédito del Perú: Ministerio de Educación, 1986. 964 p.

One of the most important analysis of the chroniclers of the conquest and early colonial periods ever undertaken.

276. Porras G., Pedro I. "Reseña histórica de las investigaciones arqueológicas en el Oriente ecuatoriano," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 133-146.

A detailed review of the limited scientific archaeological work done in the Oriente by Clifford Evans, Betty Meggers, and Porras himself. Includes a discussion of the amateur and dilatory labor of their "predecessors."

277. Porras P., María Elena. "Nuevas perspectivas sobre la historia territorial del Ecuador y Perú: críticas de los textos escolares de historia de límites," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 117-123.

The most important points that María Elena Porras makes are: 1) to base Ecuador's territorial claims on the alledged pre-Inca Reino de Quito and the doctrine of uti possidetis of 1810 perpetuates the mythification of the history of Ecuador; 2) that to continue to portray Peru as the villain tends to exacerbate tension and misunderstanding between Ecuador and Peru; and 3) that the history of boundaries as taught in both countries contributes neither to the formation of national consciousness nor to the resolution of the conflict.

278. Romero Arteta, Oswaldo. "Pedro de Mercado, historiador y escritor del siglo XVII," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 68:145/146 (ene./dic. 1985), 103-120.

Mercado (1620-1701) was a Jesuit priest and the author of the monumental Historia de la Provincia del Nuevo Reino y Quito de la Compañía de Jesús (item 5109).

279. Ruales B., Ricardo. "Los estudios sobre Manuela Sáenz," Quitumbe, 5 (1982), 34-63.

A critical review of literature on Bolívar's quiteña lover.

280. Salazar, Ernesto. "La arqueología contemporánea del Ecuador (1970-1993)," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 5-28.

A balanced survey of "scientific" archaeology in Ecuador. Includes a discussion of pre-1970 developments, especially of the work of Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño, Emilio Estrada, Betty J. Meggers, and Clifford Evans.

281. Salvador Lara, Jorge. "Cuenca y los historiadores," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 48 (1983), 119-134.

282. Salvador Lara, Jorge. "Tres artículos del P. Juan de Velasco," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 164-170.

An unabashedly favorable appreciation of Father Velasco. An example of the traditional, still all too prevalent great man approach to the past.

284. Schmit, Marilee. "Ethnicity, Cultural Continuity, and Socioeconomic Processes: Recent Works in Ecuadorian Ethnology and Ethnography," Latin American Research Review, 23:3 (1988), 238-247.

Reviews Luzuriaga and Zuvekas's Income Distribution and Poverty (item 129), Political Anthropology of Ecuador (item 7956), Whitten's Sicuanga Runa (item 8178), and Cultural Transformations and Ethnicity (item 7939).

285. Schroder, Barbara. "Indians in the Halls of Academe: Rural Andean Peoples Confront Social Science," Peasant Studies, 18:2 (Winter 1991), 97-116.

Reviews scholarship on the Levantamiento Nacional Indígena of 1990.

286. Smith, Peter H. "The Image of a Dictator: Gabriel García Moreno," Hispanic American Historical Review, 45:1 (Feb. 1965), 1-24.

A critical review of pro and con literature by Ecuadorian and other Latin American scholars.

287. Szászdi, Adam. "The Economic History of the Diocese of Quito, 1616-1787," Latin American Research Review, 21:2 (1986), 266-275.

Reviews Clayton's Los astilleros de Guayaquil colonial (item 6744), Cushner's Farm and Factory (item 1370), Freile Granizo's transcription of the Actas del Cabildo colonial de Guayaquil (item 6789), and the Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas (item 509), and comments on other recent work on the economic history of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Marred by personalism unlike the author's earlier survey (item 288).

288. Szászdi, Adam. "The Historiography of the Republic of Ecuador," Hispanic American Historical Review, 44:4 (Nov. 1964), 503-550.

A comprehensive, more or less objective survey of traditional Ecuadorian historiography.

Also published in Spanish as: "La historiografía de la República del Ecuador," Cultura, 8:22 (mayo/ago. 1985), 129-172.

289. "Los Talleres de Investigación Social: una experiencia referente a la historia social," Felicia Astudillo [et al.], Revista del IDIS, 10 (feb. 1982), 135-170.

Outlines the research plan for "Estructura social y lucha de clases en la región centro-sur del Ecuador (1820-1861)" under the direction of Lucas A. Achig S.

290. Terán, Francisco. "Los geógrafos de la patria," Estudios de historia y geografía (Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1983), p. 149-183.

A knowledgeable review of geographic studies of the country, beginning with those of Dionisio de Alsedo y Herrera in the mid-eighteenth century, through those of professionally trained scholars of the late-twentieth century, including Terán himself. Written in 1982.

291. Terán Najas, Rosemarie. "La historia económica y social sobre la época colonial ecuatoriana: un balance de la producción historiográfica en los últimos 25 años," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 29-52.

An interesting but far from complete survey of studies of the 1970s, 1980s, and the early 1990s on the colonial period. Important as an indicator of what the "new" historians believe to have been the most important developments during the two and a half decades in question.

292. Tobar Donoso, Julio. "Un libro y un hombre," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:126 (jul./dic. 1975), 174-185.

A detailed sketch of the life of Francisco X. Aguirre and an appreciation of his posthumously published Bosquejo histórico de la República del Ecuador (item 529).

293. Uhle, Max. "El desarrollo de la prehistoria ecuatoriana en los primeros cien años de la república," El Ecuador en cien años de independencia (item 1927), vol. 1, p. 1-22.

Still a useful survey of the state of study of the pre-Hispanic period as of 1930. Especially interesting is Uhle's ciritique of the then virtually sacrosant González Suárez.

Reprinted in: Resumen histórico del Ecuador, 1830-930, 1947 (item 1966), vol. 1, p. 202-217; and in: Revista de antropología (Cuenca), 9 (abr. 1986), 211-250. See also item 1259.

294. Urigüen, Jaime Idrovo. "Panorama histórico de la arqueología ecuatoriana," Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Sección del Azuay, 8 (1989), 9-107.

A diachronic review of the development of "Ecuadorian" archaeology from the pre-1878 contributions of foreign scholars through the institutional studies of the 1970s and 1980s. Eighteen seventy-eight was a benchmark year because of the publication of Federico González Suárez's Estudio histórico sobre los Cañaris (item 895), "la primera obra de arqueología ecuatoriana."

295. Villacrés Moscoso, Jorge W. "Breve historia de la ciencia geográfica ecuatoriana," Cuadernos de historia y arqueología, 14/16:30/32 (abr. 1967), 16-62.

Also a diachronic review, but of foreign and national geographic studies of the country. Includes useful bibliographic data.

296. Viteri Gamboa, Julio. 3 voluntades y una finalidad. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas, 1971. 51 p.

Assesses the contributions of Emilio Estrada, Betty Meggers, and Clifford Evans to the archaeology of Ecuador.

297. Zapater, Irving Iván. "La revolución juliana a través del ojo crítico de Oscar Efrén Reyes: (apuntes preliminares para una crítica de Los últimos siete años," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 71:151/152 (ene./dic. 1988), 291-302.

A critical review of item 2572.

AYUDAS DE INVESTIGACION

This section consists primarily of guides to and studies of archives, libraries, museums, and private collections in Ecuador and repositories located elsewhere in the world that have materials on Ecuador.

By the 1980s, archival research in Ecuador had become somewhat more feasible and practical than it was previously. As of the late twentieth century, historical archives were usually open to the public, maintained more or less regular albeit limited hours, and had helpful, sometimes even knowledgeable, directors and staff. Furthermore, guides now exist to many of the repositories, and in some cases, also inventories, at least of some of fondos.

Some of the more important ecclesiastical archives, most notably of Cuenca, had finally opened their doors to qualified researchers, and guides to their holdings had began to appear too (e.g., items 303 and 305). Full time personnel were and probably still are not always assigned to church repositories, however.

When it comes to administrative archives, little had changed. Some like the Archivo y Biblioteca de la Función Legislativa, were and presumably still are usually open and easy enough to use. Some undoubtedly remain closed. A few like the Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores had established and organized historical archives. Access to the majority of administrative archives probably remains a question of personal contacts and contingent upon the good will of whoever is in charge of the repository.

Another important development of the late-twentieth century was the acquisition of major private collections, such as those of Carlos Manuel Larrea and Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño, by the Banco Central del Ecuador, and the preparation of guides thereto (see, for example, items 308 and 309). Insofar as the Archivos Históricos of the Banco Central are concerned, however, their status had become problematic. Established together with Centros de Investigación y Cultura in every provincial branch of the bank as well as in the capital in the 1970s and 1980s --consolidating many local repositories, especially notarial archives-- the majority of the Archivos Históricos and Centros de Investigación y Cultura were closed in the 1990s. It is not known if this will turn out to be temporary, or whether their manuscript and library holdings will be transferred to the Centros de Investigación y Cultura of Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca.

Notwithstanding the badly needed and therefore more than welcome specialized guides that appeared in the 1980s and 1990s, a detailed as well as comprehensive vade mecum of the administrative, ecclesiastical, and historical archives of the country at large was still and may still be lacking. (A comprehensive survey of the whereabouts and status of private collections such as those of the deceased Cristóbal de Gangotena y Jijón or the also late Pedro Robles y Chambers did not exist either.) But the researcher could obtain a good idea of the repositories to which he/she should turn and a sense, if not a delineation, of their contents through the Research Guide to Andean History (item 412), Grecia Vasco de Escudero's Los archivos quiteños (item 435), her Directorio ecuatoriano de archivos (item 436), and Christian Vogel's "Los archivos coloniales del Ecuador" (item 440).

Four guides that came to my attention after this section was completed are: Ezio Garay Arellano's Fichero genealógico (Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1989; xviii, 429 p.); Gregorio César de Larrea's, Fichero histórico (Quito: S.A.G., 1991; 180 p. [Colección "Amigos de la Genealogía"; 44]); the Guía del Archivo Histórico de Límites of Peru's Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (Lima: Dirección de Proyectos, Sub-Proyecto de Archivo de Límites y General, 1994; 47 p.); and Catálagos del Archivo Histórico del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (Quito: Abya-Yala, 1996; 3 v.)--the "guide" to this imporant repository. Apparently Garay Arellano's Fichero genealógico summarizes the genealogical data (in alphabetical order) he found in last wills and testaments and related sources in the notarial records in the Archivo Histórico del Guayas. Larrea's Fichero histórico is supposed to be a guide to sources from the colonial period that are to be found in private collections.

Peru's Archivo Histórico de Límites should be consulted by anyone endeavouring to add new data or fresh perspective to the boundary dispute between Ecuador and Peru. Ecuador's Archivo Histórico del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores contains not only materials on boundaries but also a substantial number of documents from 1692-1821 on various other aspects of the colonial and independence periods.

Also important is a work that I inadvertently left out, Vicenta Cortés Alonso's Catálogo de mapas de Colombia (Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispánica, 1967), a guide to the cartographic holdings of the Archivo Histórico Nacional in Bogotá. The Archivo Histórico Nacional is also known as the Archivo Nacional, apropos of a not insignificant point. Repositories are sometimes referred to by variant names.

298. Albornoz, Víctor Manuel. "Algo sobre bibliografía azuaya," Revista, Casa de la Cultura, Núcleo del Azuay, 3:4 (ago. 1951), 201-232.

Primarily a guide to manuscript sources of the colonial, independence, and early national periods, including some materials in private hands.

299. Alcina Franch, José; and Remedios de la Peña. Textos para la etnohistoria de Esmeraldas. Madrid: Departamento de Antropología y Etnología de América, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1974. 99 leaves.

300. Alvarez Mantilla, Mauro; and Irving Iván Zapater. "Periódicos ecuatorianos en la Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia," Cultura, 7:19 (mayo/ago. 1984), 309-327.

301. Anda Aguirre, Alfonso. "Cedulario del Monasterio de Conceptas de Ntra. Sra. de las Nieves de la ciudad de Loja," Revista del Instituto de Historia Eclesiástica Ecuatoriana, 10 (1990), 179-191.

302. Aparicio, Mónica; and Alfonso Ortiz Crespo. Diagnóstico de museos del Ecuador. Quito: Asociación Ecuatoriana de Museos, 1982. 163, 33, 37 p.

303. Archivo de la Curia Arquidiocesana de Cuenca. Catálogo del Archivo de la Curia Arquidiocesana de Cuenca, volumen preparado por el Centro de Investigación y Cultura con la participación de Martha Maldonado Samaniego y de Lucia Villavicencio de Burbano. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1989-<1990>. <2> vol.

The ACA/C is an exceptionally important repository. It also includes materials, especially from the colonial, independence, and early national periods, for what are now the Dioceses of Azogues and Loja and the Archdiocesis of Guayaquil inasmuch as not all appropriate documents were transferred from Cuenca to Guayaquil upon the establishment of the Diocese of Guayaquil in 1838. The same holds true for the Archivo del Cabildo Eclesiástico de Cuenca (see item 305).

Contents: vol. 1, Diezmos y economía; vol. 2, Juicios, inventarios, testamentos.

304. "Archivo de Pedro Robles Chambers," Sociedad Amigos de la Genealogía, 1:1 (mar. 1983), 12-36.

Publishes Robles y Chambers's "fichero." See items 403 and 344 (in that order) for parts two and three.

305. Archivo del Cabildo Eclesiástico de Cuenca. Catálogo del Archivo del Cabildo Eclesiástico de Cuenca, volumen preparado por el Centro de Investigación y Cultura del Banco Central del Ecuador, Sucursal en Cuenca, con la colaboración del Dr. Juan Chacón Z. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1986. xvii, 324 p.

306. Archivo Histórico del Banco Central del Ecuador. Estructura agraria de la sierra centro-norte, 1830-1930, Carlos Marchán Romero, Bruno Andrade Andrade, Eduardo Guevara Valencia. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1984-1986. 4 v.

Vols. 1-3 consist of indexes of records of rural properties in the Provinces of Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Cotopaxi, Tungurahua, and Chimborazo. Organized estate by estate and chronologically. Vol. 4 is subtitled Conformación orgánica de las familias terratenientes and includes bibliographical references and indexes for the set. A fifth vol., tentatively entitled "Progreso y tradición: un siglo de desarrollo agropecuario y económico de la sierra norcentral (1820-1933) in which Marchán is supposed to interpret the sources and offer a detailed study of the agrarian history of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, has apparently been ready since 1990, but as of July 1997, had not been published. Almost all of the original records, formerly scattered in various notaries and administrative archives, are now housed in one or more branches of the Archivo Histórico del Banco Central.

307. Archivo Histórico del Banco Central del Ecuador. Fondo Banco Central, volumen preparado por Mauro Alvarez Mantilla. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1985-1986. 2 v. (xxiii, 319, xi, 402 p.). (Catálogos del Archivo Histórico; 9-10).

Vol. 2 prepared by Mauro Alvarez Mantilla and Germán Solano de la Sala Veintemilla.

Contents: vol. 1, Circulares postales del Departamento de Cambios, 1950-1965; vol. 2, Circulares postales del Departamento de Cambios, 1966-1984.

308. Archivo Histórico del Banco Central del Ecuador. Fondo Jijón y Caamaño, preparado por Milton Luna Tamayo y Patricio Ordóñez Chiriboga, 1¬ ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1983-1987. 3 v. (ix, 308, x, 302, xi, 414 p.). (Catálogos del Archivo Histórico; 2, 5, 7).

Vol. 3 prepared by Milton Luna Tamayo, Patricio Ordóñez Chiriboga, and Fátima Ponce Estupiñán. The former collection of Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño is incredibly rich. It consists of at least twenty-one distinct series. These three volumes describe only the first series, "Documentos misceláneos," consisting of approximately 13,000 manuscripts, from 1543 through 1914. Well indexed. See also item 437.

309. Archivo Histórico del Banco Central del Ecuador. Fondo Neptalí Bonifaz, preparado por Lucía Suárez Pasquel, 1¬ ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1983-1984. 2 v. (315, 323 p.). (Catálogos del Archivo Histórico; 1, 4).

Catalogs the private papers of one of the more important members of the traditional elite and one of the founders of the Banco Central. Vol. 2 includes a guide to the records--dating from as early as 1606--of Bonifaz's estate, the Hacienda Guachalá. Indexed.

310. Archivo Histórico del Banco Central del Ecuador. Fondo Notarías de Ambato, preparado por María Teresa Larrea, 1¬ ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1984-1987. 2 v. (x, 310, 383 p.). (Catálogos del Archivo Histórico; 3, 6).

The Fondo Notarías de Ambato consists of registers (protocolos) from 1749-1900 and litigation (juicios) from 1604-1939. Indexed.

311. Archivo Nacional de Historia (Quito, Ecuador). Guía del Archivo Nacional de Historia. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1981. 219 p.

312. Archivo Nacional de Historia (Quito, Ecuador). Guía de los fondos documentales del Archivo Nacional del Ecuador. Quito: Consejo Nacional de Archivos, 1994. 2 v. (474, 506 p.).

As of July 1997, the most up-to-date as well as complete check list of the holdings of the ANH/Q. Other useful guides are items 311, 323, 347.

313. Archivo Secreto Vaticano, investigación, selección y notas, Francisco Miranada Ribadeneira. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1989. 3 v. (Catálogos del Archivo Histórico; 12-14).

Covers the years 1823-1903.

314. Arroyo del Río, Carlos Alberto. El Instituto Cultural Ecuatoriano: su fundación e inauguración. Quito: Tall. Gráf. del Ministerio de Educación, 1943. 42 p.

315. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Guía de la documentación diplomática británica sobre Ecuador: elaborada a base de las referencias existentes en los archivos del Foreign Office, Public Record Office de Londres. Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Quito, 1986. 85 p.

316. Barrera, Isaac J. "El número 100 del Boletín de la Academia de Historia," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 44:100 (jul./dic. 1962), 131-146.

An overview of the first 53 years of the Academy and its labors and of the contributions of its members.

See also José María Vargas's "Fundación de la Sociedad de Estudios Históricos Americanos," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 67:143/144 (ene.-dic. 1984), 6-17.

317. Barrera, Isaac J.; and Carlos Manuel Larrea. "El Archivo Luis Felipe Borja Pérez," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 35:86 (jul./dic. 1955), 249-255; 37:89 (ene./jun. 1957), 106-108; 38:92 (jul./dic. 1958), 229-234.

Lists manuscripts, including but not limited to family papers, donated by the heirs of Borja Pérez to the Academia Nacional de Historia. The documents span the years 1642-1896.

318. Barrera B., Jaime. "Obras y documentos antiguos existentes en la Biblitoeca de la Universidad Central," Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, 57:297 (jul./sept. 1936), 471-526.

319. Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit." Cincuentenario de la biblioteca y museo ecuatorianos Aurelio Espinosa Pólit, 1929-1979. Quito: La Biblioteca, 1980. 140 p.

320. Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador. Exposición del periodismo ecuatoriano: contribución de la Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador. Quito: Tall. Gráf. del Ministerio de Educación, 1941. 119 p.

"Síntesis de la Hemeroteca de la Biblioteca Nacional."

321. "Las Bibliotecas en Cuenca," Antonio Lloret Bastidas [et al.], Tres de noviembre, 32:147 (ene./abr. 1987), 25-34, 44-125.

322. Bognoli, José Clemente. La Biblioteca Municipal: antecedentes históricos y su legislación municipal moderna. Quito: Impr. Municipal, 1965. 60 p.

323. Bonnett Velez, Diana. La Sección Indígenas del Archivo Histórico de Quito, siglos XVI-XVIII: documentos, 1¬ ed. Quito: FLACSO: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1992. 100 p.

A guide to materials in the "Indígenas" section of the Archivo Nacional de Historia.

324. Buys, Josef E.; and Jorge G. Marcos. Centro de Estudios Arqueológicos y Antropológicos del Litoral, Guayaquil, Ecuador. Guayaquil: Proyecto Regional de Patrimonio Cultural y Desarrollo PNUD/UNESCO, 1985. 19 p.

325. Caillavet, Chantal. "Les archives équatoriennes," Cahiers du monde hispanique et luso-brésilien (Caravelle), 34 (1980), 171-175.

An introduction to public archives, especially historical, and private collections of Quito.

326. Caillavet, Chantal. "Fuentes para la historia andina: los archivos privados indígenas de la zona de Saraguro," Miscelánea antropológica ecuatoriana, 5:5 (1985), 87-90.

327. Caillavet, Chantal. "Fuentes y problemática de la historia colonial de Loja y su provincia," Cultura, 5:15 (ene./abr.1983), 355-370.

A cogent introduction to archival sources in Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, and Spain for the reconstrucion of the history of Loja and its province.

328. Carrión, Fernando. Centros de investigación y bibliotecas: directorio ecuatoriano, 1¬ ed. Quito: CIUDAD-CONUEP, 1988. 306 p.

A comprehensive directory of research centers and libraries throughout the country.

329. Cartas de cabildos hispanoamericanos: Audiencia de Quito (siglos XVI-XIX), edición e introducción Javier Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Montserrat Fernández Martínez, Agueda Rivera Garrido. Sevilla: Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, 1991. xx, 506 p.

A calendar of letters and accompanying documents from town councils of Spanish towns and Indians pueblos in the Audiencia de Quito fondo of the Archivo General de Indias (Seville). Well indexed.

330. Castillo, Abel Romeo. "Indice general de los papeles de Pedro Franco Dávila: (volúmenes I y II)," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 9:21/22 (1952), 62-76.

A calendar of transcriptions of papers of Franco Dávila deposited by Castillo in the Centro de Investigaciones Históricas de Guayaquil, the archives and library of which are now in the Archivo Histórico del Guayas. N.B. In some instances Castillo's transcriptions may be the only extant versions inasmuch as some of the corresponding originals or coeval copies seen by him in Spain were destroyed during the Civil War. Far more of the manuscripts in question survived, however, than used to be thought: see Calatayud's biography of Franco Dávila (item 3086).

331. Clayton, Lawrence A. "Documentos en el Archivo General de Indias para el estudio de la historia marítima y comercial de Guayaquil en el siglo XVII," Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 3:6 (dic. 1974), 64-82.

332. Chacón Zhapán, Juan. "El Archivo Histórico Municipal," Huellas (Cuenca), 5 (nov. 1987), 34-36.

On the Historical Archives of the Municipality of Cuenca.

333. Chacón Zhapán, Juan. "Nociones de paleografía y archivística," Segundo encuentro de historia y realidad económica y social del Ecuador (item 574), vol. 1, p. 629-719.

Delineates the origins of the Archivo Nacional de Historia in Quito and the Archivo Nacional de Historia: Sección del Azuay in Cuenca. Not a complete or altogether reliable account of the early years of the ANH/SA, however.

334. Chaves, Alfredo. "Indice general de las publicaciones que han aparecido en la Revista de la Jurídico Literaria [sic] desde su fundación en 1902 hasta 1932," Revista de la Sociedad Jurídico-Literaria, 51:133 (ene./dic. 1953), 221-251.

335. Chaves, Alfredo. "Trayectoria del Archivo Nacional de Historia: pasado y presente de sus actividades," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 4 (1956), 3-5.

336. Destruge, Camilo. "Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil: apuntaciones históricas, desde su fundación hasta la fecha," Boletín de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 3:25 (mar. 1912), 8-13; 3:26 (abr. 1912), 17-28.

On the early history of the Municipal Library of the port city.

337. Destruge, Camilo. "La Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil," Revista Municipal (Guayaquil), 1:6 (9 mar. 1926), 9-20.

Updates item 336.

338. Directorio de organizaciones no gubernamentales dedicadas al desarrollo en el Ecuador. Quito: Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo; Fundación Alternativas para el Desarrollo, 1992-. <1 v. (298 p.)>.

A directory of NGOs.

339. Ecuador en la investigación francesa, años 80, realizado por Groupe de recherches sur l'Amérique latine Toulouse-Perpignan [y] Centro de Estudios Documentarios sobre América Latina, Université de Toulouse-Le Mirail [GRAL/CEDOCAL-Universidad de Toulouse II-Le Mirail]. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1992. 1 v. (not paginated).

340. Erazo Arias, Luis Abdón. "Los 25 años de la Revista del Núcleo de Imbabura de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana," Revista del Núcleo de Imbabura de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 12:25:24 (jul. 1979), 160-186.

Includes an index of contributers to the Revista (see items 498 and 518).

341. Estrada Ycaza, Julio. "El Archivo del Cabildo colonial de Guayaquil," Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 1:1 (primer semestre 1972), 22-36.

A detailed account of the antecedents, especially vicissitudes, of what is now the Archivo de la Secretaría Municipal de Guayaquil.

342. Estrada Ycaza, Julio. "Documentación indiana en el Archivo Histórico del Guayas," Anuario histórico jurídico ecuatoriano, 5 (1980), 487-511.

Includes lists of and seventeenth-century holdings, especially of notarial records and court proceedings, of the AHG.

343. "Facultad Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO)," Latin American Research Review, 12:2 (1977), 240-242.

See also item 425.

344. "Fichero Pedro Robles Chambers: tercera parte," Colección Amigos de la Genealogía, 23 (nov. 1986), 27-38.

See items 304 and 403 for parts one and two.

345. Freile Granizo, Juan. "Los archivos ecuatorianos y la historia," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 65:139/140 (ene./dic. 1983), 288-296.

346. Freile Granizo, Juan. "Los documentos y la investigación histórica," Miscelánea histórica ecuatoriana, 1:1 (1986), 96-111.

A somewhat rambling discourse on the history and state of archives in the country. Freile Granizo was director of the Archivo Nacional at the time.

347. Freile Granizo, Juan. Guía del Archivo Nacional de Historia. Guayaquil: Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 1974. xi, 174 p.

An excellent introduction to and survey of the holdings of the ANH/Q. Especially strong on the colonial period.

348. Freile Granizo, Juan. "Lista parcial de documentación guayaquileña en la Sección Gobierno del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Quito," Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 1:1 (primer semestre 1972), 9-13; 1:2 (dic. 1972), 25-32.

349. "Fundación de la Biblioteca Nacional de Quito," Mensaje, época 3, 8/9 (1938), 154-160.

350. Gandara Enríquez, Marcos. "Memorias de hombres de estado," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 71:151/152 (ene./dic. 1988), 75-145.

Analyzes and describes the memoirs and other writings of presidents (from Juan José Flores through the fifth presidency of Velasco Ibarra) and some, but far from all, of their ideologues and other supporters. Ignores the more or less annual reports of the ministers of state, however, on which see items 360 and 361.

351. Grijalva de Dávila, Adriana. Guía de organismos culturales y de investigaciones en el Ecuador. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1991. 415 p.

An incomplete and poorly organized guide to cultural and research organizations.

352. "Guía de museos y archivos," Tres de Noviembre, 31:144 (ene./abr. 1986), 109-112.

A guide to museums and archives of Cuenca.

353. "Guía del Fondo Mestizos del Archivo Nacional de Historia," Quitumbe, 9 (jun. 1995), 123-137.

354. Guía para investigadores del Ecuador, Instituto Geográfico Militar. Quito: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia, 1982. 23, 117 p.

A guide to the activities, holdings, and publications of the Instituto Geográfico Militar.

355. Guillén, Alejandro. "El Centro de Población: una experiencia en el Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales de la Universidad de Cuenca," Revista del IDIS, 19 (nov. 1988), 9-17.

Outlines the history and activities of the Centro de Población established in 1983.

356. Hamerly, Michael T. "Archives of Cuenca," The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 37:3 (Jan. 1981), 379-392.

N.B. Supersedes Hamerly's chapter on repositories in Cuenca in item 412.

357. Hamerly, Michael T. "Archives of Guayaquil: Colonial and Nineteenth-Century Institutions and Administrative Archives," The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 38:3 (Jan. 1982), 379-391.

358. Hamerly, Michael T. "Archives of Guayaquil: Ecclesiastical Entities and Archives," The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 38:4 (Apr. 1982), 515-523.

359. Hamerly, Michael T. "Archives of Guayaquil: Historical Archives and Private Collections," The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 39:1 (July 1982), 107-116.

Items 357-359 are comprehensive albeit inevitably dated surveys of archives of and private collections in the port city.

360. Hamerly, Michael T. "Informes ministeriales y registros oficiales del siglo XIX como fuentes cuantitativas," Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 6:11 (jun. 1977), 27-61.

More comprehensive than the necessarily abridged English version (item 361).

361. Hamerly, Michael T. "Quantifying the Nineteenth Century: The Ministry Reports and Gazettes of Ecuador as Quantitative Sources," Latin American Research Review, 13:2 (1978), 138-156.

362. Hamerly, Michael T. "Registros parroquiales e inventarios de iglesias del litoral," Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 6:12 (dic. 1977), 25-69.

Surveys parishes registers and coeval inventories of parishes churches of the central-south coast.

363. Heredia Herrera, Antonia. "Organización y descripción de los fondos de la Audiencia de Quito del Archivo General de Indias," Historiografía y bibliografía americanistas, 21 (1977), 139-165.

A useful guide to the Audiencia de Quito fondo of the Archivo General de Indias.

364. Ibarra, Hernán. "Monografías y guías comerciales como fuentes de historia social y local," Revista andina, 4:7 (jul. 1986), 237-251.

Discusses and exemplifies the importance of commemorative monographs and commercial directories as sources for local and social history. Unfortunately both are not only inadequately known for Ecuador but some of the hardest materials to come by.

365. "Indice de documentos correspondientes a los años 1741 [al 1753]," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 9:14/15 (ago. 1965), 8-179.

Abstracts and indexes documents from 1741 through 1753 in the Archivo Nacional de Historia.

366. "Indice de documentos correspondiente al año de 1754 [etc.]," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 10:16 (jul. 1966), 71-212.

Abstracts and indexes documents nos. 1845-2335 in the Archivo Nacional de Historia from 1754 through 1763. See also items 368-379, 407, and 408.

367. "Indice de documentos en la Universidad del Cauca," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 47:104 (jul./dic. 1964), 260-273; 48:105 (ene./jun. 1965), 129-137; 48:106 (jul./dic. 1965), 281-285; 49:107 (ene./jun. 1966), 116-132; 49:108 (jul./dic. 1966), 263-266.

Abstracts manuscript holdings, vol. by vol, in the Archivo General del Cauca, housed in the University of Cauca, relating to the Audiencia of Quito. See also item 429.

368. "Indice de materias del tomo II de la Sección Presidencia de Quito del Archivo Nacional de Historia," ARNAHIS, 12:18 (ago. 1970), 185-265.

This and the following eleven "indices" are calendars of documents in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. See also items 365, 366, 407, and 408.

369. "Indice-extracto de 444 cédulas reales del primer volumen concerniente a los años de 1563 a 1612, contenidas en 28 títulos según sus diversas materias," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 13 (ago. 1964), 46-50.

370. "Indice-extracto de los documentos correspondientes a los años de 1715-1716 y 1717-1719," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 5:7/8 (ene./jun. 1959), 47-112.

371. "Indice-extracto de los documentos del Archivo Nacional de Historia nos. 607 al 685," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 4:6 (ene./dic. 1956), 18-63.

Covers the years 1713-1714.

372. "Indice-extracto de los documentos nros. 468 a 606 desde 1700 á 1705 [i.e., 1712] del Archivo Nacional de Historia," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 3:5 (ene./jul. 1954), 21-123.

373. "Indice-extracto de los documentos nros. 751 al 775, correspondientes a los años de 1720 a 1722: volumen 24," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 6:11 (dic. 1961), 68-96.

374. "Indice-extracto de los documentos nros. 776 al 809, correspondiente al año de 1723: volumen 25," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 6:11 (dic. 1961), 97-107.

375. "Indice-extracto de los documentos nros. 810 al 1016, correspondientes a los años de 1724 a 1733," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 7:12 (ago. 1963), 13-59.

376. "Indice-extracto de los documentos nros. 1017 al [1229], correspondientes a los años 1734 a [1740]," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 13 (ago. 1964), 51-106.

377. "Indices-extractos de los documentos nos. 1 á 248 del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Ecuador," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 1:1 (ene./jun. 1950), 22-176.

Includes personal and place name indexes.

378. "Indices-extractos de los documentos nos. 249 á 462, desde 1670 a 1699 del Archivo Nacional de Historia," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 1:2 (jul./dic. 1950), 243-424.

Includes personal and place name indexes.

379. "Indices-extractos de los documentos nos. 463 á 467, desde 1696 á 1723, de Archivo Nacional de Historia," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 2:3/4 (ene./dic. 1951), 52-158.

380. "Inventario de los volúmenes conservados en el Archivo Histórico de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil," Universidad, Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil, 16/17 (jun. 1972), 153-162.

N.B. Many, if not the majority, of the materials now housed in the AH/BMG come from the Archivo de la Gobernación del Guayas.

381. Juncosa, José Enrique. "El V centenario desde el punto de vista indígena en Ecuador," SALALM and the Area Studies Community: Papers of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials . . ., David Block editor (Albuquerque: SALALM Secretariat, 1994), p. 19-23.

Reports on recent publications of indigenous organizations, especially those relating to the June 1990 uprising.

382. Kennedy Troya, Alexandra. Catálogo del Archivo General de la Orden Franciscana del Ecuador. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Instituto Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural, 1980. 330 p. (Colección archivos y bibliotecas; 1).

A detailed, well organized guide to the colonial and national period holdings of the Franciscan Archives in Quito (AGOFE), previously a virtually unknown and ignored repository. Indexed. The AGOFE is country wide in its holdings.

383. Kennedy Troya, Alexandra; and Marcia Sigüenza Crespo. Monasterio de las Conceptas de Cuenca: catálogo del archivo histórico. Cuenca: Fundación Paul Rivet, 1990. xvii, 344 p.

A guide to the holdings of the second oldest religious order for women in Cuenca.

384. Lara, Darío. "La historia del Ecuador vista por los diplomáticos franceses," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 62:133/134 (ene./dic. 1979), 67-78.

385. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "Catálogo documental sobre el 10 de agosto de 1809, del Museo Británico," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 37:90 (jul./dic. 1957), 269-276.

386. "Lista de legajos manuscritos del Museo de Historia de la Ciudad de Quito," Museo Histórico, 1:1 (mayo 1949), 31-36.

387. "Lista parcial de documentos que sobre el Ecuador se hallan en el Archivo Nacional de Bogotá," Museo Histórico, 9 (mayo 1951), 37-54.

Regarding the "10 de agosto."

388. Lovato, María Fernanda. "Guía de centros de investigación," Quitumbe, 7 (1990), 151-157.

389. Lloret Bastidas, Antonio. "Museos y archivos de Cuenca," Tres de Noviembre, 31:144 (ene./abr. 1986), 9-13.

390. Matamoros Jara, Carlos. "Periódicos publicados en Guayaquil, existentes en la Biblioteca Municipal: primera parte, 1822-1900," Revista municipal (Guayaquil), 8:15/17 (mar./mayo 1933), 23-24; 8:18 (jun. 1933), 2, 96.

391. Montalvo, Antonio. "Registro bibliográfico de la revista América: números 1-100, 1925-1950," América (Quito), 26:101 (ene./jun. 1951), 7-82.

392. Montoto, Santiago. "El proceso contra Jorge Juan y Antonio de Ulloa en Quito, 1737-1739," Anuario de estudios americanos, 5 (1948), 747-780.

Regarding the research potential of said legajo in the Archivo General de Indias.

393. Mora Castro, Diego. "Archivo Nacional de Historia: Sección del Azuay," Tres de Noviembre, 31:144 (ene./abr. 1986), 98-104.

394. Mora Castro, Diego. Fondos documentales del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Sección del Azuay. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1984. 20 p.

395. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. "La Colección documental Bernardo Mendel y su importancia en la historiografía ecuatoriana," Suplemento de Anuario de estudios americanos, 46:1 (1989), 35-50.

Describes the Mendel Collection in the Lilly Library (University of Indiana). This collection includes 23 legajos that used to be in the Archdiocesan Archives of Quito.

Also published in: Memoria, MARKA, año 2, no. 2 (nov. 1993), 151-168.

396. Norris, Robert E. "La colección de periódicos guayaquileños en la Biblioteca Nacional de Quito," Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 1:2 (dic. 1972), 17-24.

397. Oleas Montalvo, Julio; and Bruno Andrade Andrade. Indices de debates económicos del parlamento ecuatoriano, 1830-1950. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1985. xii, 479 p. (Fuentes para la historia económica del Ecuador. Serie indices de documentación; 1).

398. Ortiz Bilbao, Luis Alfonso. "Indice general a la Colección 'Vacas Galindo'," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 48:106 (jul./dic. 1965), 241-258; 49:107 (ene./jun. 1966), 49-92; 50:109 (ene./jun. 1967), 81-116; 50:110 (jul./dic. 1967), 220-252; 51:111 (ene./jun. 1968), 64-85; 51:112 (jul./dic. 1968), 209-239; 52:113 (ene./jun. 1969), 114-128; 52:114 (jul./dic. 1969), 256-277; 53:115 (ene./jun. 1970), 87-112; 53:116 (jul./dic. 1970), 367-395; 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 174-196; 55:119 (ene./jun. 1972), 135-143; 55:120 (jul./dic. 1972), 294-304; 56:121 (ene./jun. 1973), 177-192; 57:123 (ene./jun. 1974), 201-212; 58:126 (jul./dic. 1975), 150-165.

The Vacas Galindo Collection, housed in the Dominican Convent in Quito, consists of early twentieth century transcriptions--mostly typewritten, but not always reliable--of Archivo General de Indias materials. See also item 433.

399. Páez Terán, Juan Fernando. "Documentos relativos a la historia del Ecuador que se encuentran en la Biblioteca del Congreso de la Argentina," Museo Histórico, 30 (mar. 1958), 249-256.

400. Pattee, Richard. "Libraries and Archives for Historical Research in Ecuador," Hispanic American Historical Review, 17:2 (May 1937), 231-237.

Although much out-of-date as to the location and status of libraries and archives, still useful as a source of information as to their whereabouts, organization, staffing, and relative usefulness as of the mid 1930s. Interestingly enough, the best library for historical research at that time was the Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales "Carlos A. Rolando," according to Pattee.

401. Paz y Miño, Luis Telmo. Guía para la historia de la cartografía ecuatoriana. Quito: Ministerio del Tesoro, 1948. 56 p.

402. Paz y Miño, Luis Telmo. "Mapas coloniales del Ecuador," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 23:62 (jul./dic. 1943), 165-187.

403. "Pedro Robles Chambers fichero: segunda parte," Colección Amigos de la Genealogía, 21 (jun. 1986), 9-24.

See items 304 and 344 for parts one and two.

404. Pimentel Carbo, Julio. "Los escribanos en la colonia," Revista de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 53/54 (jul./dic. 1983), 175-182.

405. Porras Barrenechea, Raúl. Fuentes históricas peruanas: (apuntes de un curso universitario). Lima: Instituto Raúl Porras Barrenechea, 1963. 601 p.

An exceptionally important vade mecum. In the section on the colonial period, for example, Porras Barrenechea describes and discourses on published collections of primary sources and repositories, chronicles, and modern (i.e., post-colonial period) historians of the viceroyalty, not just of Peru proper.

406. Porras G., Pedro. I. "Manuscritos ecuatorianos en la Biblioteca Lilly de la Universidad de Indiana," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 171-173.

The relevance of the Lilly Library as a research repository cannot be over emphasized. It includes numerous manuscripts and imprints of the colonial, independence, and early national periods, Ecuadorian examples of which Porras G. herewithin provides.

407. "Presidencia de Quito: indice de materias [del tomo I]," ARNAHIS, 11:17 (ago. 1968), 182-219.

408. "Presidencia de Quito: indice de materias [del tomo III]," ARNAHIS, 13:19 (mar. 1973), 208-222.

Items 407-408 are additional calendars of documents in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. They continue items 365, 366 and 368-379.

409. Quintero, Rafael. "Escuela de Sociología y Ciencias Políticas: la política académica de la Dirección, 1974-1976," Latin American Research Review, 13:2 (1978), 236-242.

For the full text see "Informe de labores del Director de la Escuela en el bienio 1.974-1.976," Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 1:2 (1977), 127-145. The Escuela de Sociología y Ciencias Políticas was and presumably still is a division of the Universidad Central.

410. Reig Satorres, José. "Complemento de documentación ecuatoriana sobre derecho indiano," in: Congreso del Instituto Internacional de Historia del Derecho Indiano (3rd: Madrid: 1972). Actas y estudios (Madrid: Instituto Nacional de Estudios Jurídicos, 1973), p. 1079-1094.

Supplements item 410.

411. Reig Satorres, José. "Documentación ecuatoriana sobre derecho indiano," Universidad, Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil, 10-11 (dic. 1970), 59-89.

A guide to published and unpublished sources for the study of institutions in the colonial period. Supplemented by item 410.

412. Research Guide to Andean History: Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, and Peru, contributing editors, Judith R. and Peter Bakewell [et al.], coordinating editor, John J. TePaske. Durham: Duke University Press, 1981. xiii, 346 p.

Although somewhat out-of-date, still useful. N.B. Estrada Ycaza's and Hamerly's chapters on repositories in Guayaquil and Cuenca were superseded by items 356-359.

Partial contents: Jaime E. Rodríguez O., "Introduction" (p. 136-137); Adam Szászdi, "Comments on the Historiography of Ecuador's Pre-Independence Period" (p. 138-145); Jaime E. Rodríguez O., "Research in the National Period" (p. 146-150); Linda A. Rodríguez, "The Libraries and Archives of Quito" (p. 151-163); Juan Freile Granizo, "The Archivo Nacional de Historia" (p. 164-169); Joedd Price, "The Archivo Nacional de Relaciones Exteriores del Ecuador and the Biblioteca General del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores" (p. 170-171); Luis A. Rodríguez S., "The Military Archives of Ecuador" (p. 172-174); Michael T. Hamerly, "The Archives and Libraries of Cuenca" (p. 175-181); Julio Estrada Ycaza, "The Archives and Libraries of Guayaquil" (p. 182-196); Rosemary D.F. Bromley, "The Provincial Archives and Libraries of Ecuador" (p. 197-204).

For a partial update on the status of repositories in the capital see Federica Morelli's "Doing Archival Research in Quito: A Guide to Archives and Libraries," Itinerario, 18:2 (1994), 143-147.

413. Riaño, José Camilo. "Inventario del Archivo del historiador José Manuel Restrepo," Archivos (Bogotá), 1:1 (ene./jun. 1967), 179-199.

It will be recalled that Restrepo (1781-1863) took advantage of his ministerial position to obtain originals and copies of official sources in bulk from throughout what are now Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador in order to prepare his monumental Historia de la revolución de la República de Colombia (item 1833). Fortunately his descendants have maintained and allow access to his collection.

414. Rodríguez O., Jaime. E. "New Research Opportunities in Ecuador," Latin American Research Review, 8:2 (1973), 95-100.

Superseded by Rodríguez's introduction to the section on Ecuador in item 412.

415. Rolando, Carlos A. "Anales de la Universidad de Quito," Libros i bibliotecas, 1:1 (mar. 1939), 2-5; 1:2 (jun. 1939), 1-3; 1:4 (dic. 1939), 2-6.

416. Rolando, Carlos A. "Biblioteca del Archivo del Poder Legislativo," Libros i bibliotecas, 1:2 (jun. 1939), 46-48.

417. Rolando, Carlos A. "El Centro de Investigaciones Históricas de Guayaquil: breve crónica de 20 años de existencia (1930-1950)," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 9:21/22 (1952), 3-8.

418. Rolando, Carlos A. Libros, archivos i bibliotecas nacionales: (conferencia). Guayaquil: Tall. Gráf. Municipales, 1944. 17 p.

419. Rolando, Carlos A. "Pseudónimos en la prensa del Ecuador," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 3:3 (1933), 208-231.

Corrects and updates list of pseudonyms used by Ecuadorian journalists. See also item 173 and 175.

420. Rolando, Carlos A. XXV anniversario de la fundación de la Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales "Carlos A. Rolando," 1913-1938. Guayaquil: Impr. Municipal, 1938. 104 p.

421. Romero Arteta, Oswaldo. "El indice del Archivo de la antigua Provincia de Quito de la Compañía de Jesús," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 7:12 (ago. 1963), 60-110; 8:13 (ago. 1964), 107-111; 9:14/15 (ago. 1965), 180-191.

422. Salgado, Cristóbal. "Tesis que se conservan en el Archivo de la Secretaría de la Universidad Central para la consulta de los alumnos," Revista de derecho y ciencias sociales, 1:2 (mayo 1933), 98-106.

Lists theses presented between 1905 and early 1933.

423. Silva, Rafael Euclides. "El Archivo Nacional de Historia: institución cultural ecuatoriana," Anales del Archivo Nacional y Museo Unico, 2¬ época, 1(1939), 7-19.

424. Silva, Rafael Euclides. "Labor paleográfica de restauración y descifración de las actas del Cabildo colonial de Santiago de Guayaquil," Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 9:21/22 (1952), 174-182.

Describes his work as transcriber of the Actas del Cabildo colonial de Guayaquil (item 6789), and the state of the Archivo de la Secretaría Municipal de Guayaquil as of the early 1950s.

425. "Social Science Centers in Quito," Latin American Research Review, 14:2 (1979), 208-212.

An introduction to the Centro de Planificación y Estudios Sociales (CEPLAES), the Fundación de Investigación y Asesoría para el Desarrollo (FIAD), the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO)--on which see also item 343--and the Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones (ILDIS).

426. Solís Chiriboga, María Cristina. "El Fondo Escribanías Públicas del Cantón Quito: Sección Protocolos, del Archivo Nacional," Miscelánea histórica ecuatoriana, 2:2 (1989), 105-125.

427. Terán, Enrique. "Fundación de la Biblioteca Nacional de Quito," Mensaje (Quito), 8/9 (1938), 154-160.

428. Torres Lanzas, Pedro. Relación descriptiva de los mapas, planos, etc. de las antiguas Audiencias de Panamá, Santa Fé y Quito existentes en el Archivo General de Indias. Madrid: Tip. de la Revista de Arch., Bib. y Museos, 1906. 185 p.

Reprinted as: Catálogo de mapas y planos: Audiencias de Panamá, Santa Fé y Quito. Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura, Dirección General de Bellas Artes y Archivos, 1985.

429. Ubidia Rubio, Luis Enrique. "Catálogo de documentos del Archivo de la Universidad del Cauca," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 47:103 (ene./jun. 1964), 87-107; 48:105 (ene./jun. 1965), 129-137; 48:106 (jul./dic. 1965), 281-285.

A guide to Archivo General del Cauca holdings "referentes al Ecuador." See also item 367.

430. Universidad Central del Ecuador. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas. Catálogo de tesis de grado de la Facultad de Economía 1950-1984. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, 1985. 250 p.

431. Valdospinos Rubio, Marcelo. El IOA: cultura y crisis. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleño de Antropología, 1990. 39 p.

On the Instituto Otavaleño de Antropología.

432. Vargas, José María. "Fuentes documentales para la historia del Ecuador," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 9:14/15 (ago. 1965), 3-7.

433. Vargas, José María. Misiones ecuatorianas en archivos europeos. México: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia, 1956. 192 p.

Includes a guide to the Vacas Galindo Collection. See also item 398.

434. Vargas Ugarte, Ruben. Manual de estudios peruanistas. Lima: Ediciones Libr. Studium, 1951. 346 p.

Included here because Vargas Ugarte took in greater Peru and therefore the literature on the former viceroyalty, including the Presidency of Quito during most of the colonial period.

435. Vasco de Escudero, Grecia. Los archivos quiteños. Quito: Sección Ecuatoriana del Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia, 1977. 178 p.

A detailed guide to ecclesiastical, administrative, and historical archives of the capital.

436. Vasco de Escudero, Grecia. Directorio ecuatoriano de archivos. Quito: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia, Sección Nacional del Ecuador, 1979. 163 p.

A country wide directory of ecclesiastical, administrative, and historical archives.

437. Villacís V., Eduardo. "Los indices del Archivo 'Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño'," Cultura, 2:5 (sept./dic. 1979), 311-338; 3:7 (mayo/ago. 1980), 286-346.

438. Villacrés Moscoso, Jorge W. "Cartografía histórica del Ecuador," Cuadernos de historia y arqueología, 22:39 (1972), 30-76.

A calendar of maps of Ecuador and its component regions from the sixteenth century through the 1960s.

439. Villavicencio de Burbano, Lucía. Guía de documentos para el estudio de la historia económica de Cuenca y su región. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1986. 91 p.

440. Vogel, Christian. "Los archivos coloniales del Ecuador," Revista, Instituto de Historia Eclesiástica Ecuatoriana, 1 (1974), 189-227.

Reprint; originally published in El Comercio (Quito) in the Aug. 8, 15, 22, and 29, 1965 issues. The first comprehensive introduction to archives of the country at large, including ecclesiastical, municipal, and provincial, housing materials from and on the colonial period. Although now somewhat out-of-date, still very much worth consulting.

441. Whitten, Dorothea S.; and Norman E. Whitten, Jr. Art, Knowledge, and Health: Development and Assessment of a Collaborative, Auto-Financed Organization in Eastern Ecuador. Cambridge, Mass.: Cultural Survival, Inc.; Urbana, Ill.: Sacha Runa Research Foundation, 1985. 126 p.

A history of the Sacha Runa Research Foundation.

REVISTAS

This section lists every historical and related journal for which I was able to find or to establish an acceptable bibliographic description (that is to say, a description that includes enumeration, place of publication, and date of initial, and also, when known, of terminal publication. The number of issues or volumes, again when know, in the case of defunct titles is also specified.) N.B. Journals that are primarily bibliographic or statistical in coverage are entered under "Bibliografías" or "Estadística" for the most part.

I have not indicated frequency of publication except in a few instances. This is because the majority of Ecuadorian periodicals, especially scholarly journals, appear sporadically, even those that claim to be issued "regularly." Indicative of this are the "total" numbers of issues (not titles) of Ecuadorian periodicals registered by Edgar Freire Rubio in vol. 3 of his Desde el mostrador del librero (item 80): 254 for 1992; 267 for 1993; 258 for 1994; and 242 for 1995.

As of Dec. 1999, bibliographic control over Ecuadorian serials remained to be achieved. The histories of some periodicals, annuals, and "irregular" serials were known, but the particulars of far too many titles had, and probably still have, yet to be established. This is true whether one consults North American, European, or Ecuadorian records. Neither the Union List of Serials in Libraries of the United States and Canada, 3rd ed. (New York: H.W. Wilson, 1965), its several supplements, nor the ongoing Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory (New York: Bowker, 1965-) provide comprehensive coverage of Ecuadorian serials. In part this is because North American and European libraries have not made a concerted effort to collect and to describe Ecuadorian periodicals, annuals, and "irregular" serials.

Insofar as Ecuador is concerned, this section supersedes my "Historical and Related Journals of Spanish South America: a Current and Retrospective Checklist," Handbook of Latin American Studies, 36 (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1974), 194-200. Only one North American librarian other than myself had attempted to establish control over Ecuadorian serials, the late Rosa Quintero Mesa, in vol. 8 of her indispensable Latin American Serial Documents (item 138).

When it comes to serials, Ecuadorian bibliographies suffer from the same defect as their North American and European counterparts, incomplete coverage. At least one Ecuadorian scholar, however, recognized the need for a comprehensive bibliography of serials. In his classic Indice bibliográfico de las revistas de la Biblioteca Jaramillo de Escritos Nacionales (item 109), Miguel Angel Jaramillo gave us a paradigm of bibliographic description of periodicals as art and as science, an issue by issue accounting and description thereof. Unfortunately, no one has taken up where Jaramillo left off, at least not as of the late 1990s. Freire Rubio, however, provides a running account of "publicaciones periódicas" in his ongoing Desde el mostrador del librero (item 80).

I am aware of other historical and related periodicals that should have been listed here (e.g., Nariz del diablo). But not yet having been able to determine to my satisfaction the particulars of the serials in question, I have not included them.

The economic crisis of the 1980s and 1990s took its toll. A number of major serials published or sponsored by the Banco Central ceased to be published or appeared with considerable delay. As of the late 1990s, it was not know whether the demises of Boletín del Archivo Histórico (item 457), Miscelánea antropológica ecuatoriana (item 483), Miscelánea histórica ecuatoriana (item 484), Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas (item 509), and Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica (item 520) were temporary or permanent. At least the Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica reappeared for 1994 and 1995, after an hiatus of three years.

442. América. Año 1, no. 1 (1925)-. Quito: Grupo América, 1925-.

Here within cited as: América (Quito). Apparently defunct. For a partial guide to América's contents see item 391.

443. América libre, director, Carlos Manuel Noboa. Guayaquil: Prensa Ecuatoriana, 1920-1934. 3 v. (384, lxi p.; 500 p.; 610 p.).

An exceptionally important irregular. Vol. 1 commemorated the 9 de octubre with a number of interesting articles on the port city as it had been in 1820 and as it had become by 1920. Vol. 2 and 3, which appeared in 1922 and 1934, respectively, are crammed with considerable data on the country at large in the 1920s and early 1930s. All three folio size vols., moreover, are profusely illustrated.

444. Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador. T. 1, no. 1 (mar. 1883)-. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, 1883-.

The titles varies. Originally entitled: Anales de la Universidad de Quito.

Cumulative indexes exist for 1883-1934 and 1935-1964: Indice general de los Anales de la Universidad Central (Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1935); and Ruth Matilde Altamirano Silva, Indice analítico de los Anales de la Universidad Central, 1935-1964 (Medellín: Escuela Interamericana de Bibliotecología, 1965).

445. Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca. T. 1, no. 1 (oct. 1940)-. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, 1940-.

A subject index exists for 1940-1982: Michurín Velez Valarezo, Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca: indice análitco. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Biblioteca General Juan Bautista Vázquez, 1982. 129 p.

Continues: Revista de la Universidad de Cuenca (item 506).

446. Anales del Archivo Nacional de Historia y Museo Unico. Epoca 2, t. 1 (1939). Quito: Tall. Gráf. del Ministerio de Educación, 1939. 1 v. (320 p.).

Continued: Revista del Archivo de la Biblioteca Nacional de Quito (item 508).

447. Antropología: cuadernos de investigación. No. 1 (jun. 1983)-. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Departamento de Antropología, Centro de Investigación, Documentación y Difusión de Antropología (CIDDA), 1983-.

448. Antropología ecuatoriana. No. 1 (1978)-. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Sección Académica de Antropología y Arqueología, 1978-.

449. Anuario de la Fundación Los Andes de Estudios Sociales. Año 1, no. 1 (jul. 1990)-. Quito: Fundación Los Andes de Estudios Sociales, 1990-.

450. Anuario histórico jurídico ecuatoriano (Guayaquil). 1 (1970)-. Guayaquil: Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones, Sección de Investigaciones Histórico Jurídicas, 1970-<1985>. <9> v.

This serial is as much a series as an "annual." The monographic issues are entered separately here within (e.g., item 529). Moribund, if not defunct.

451. Boletín arqueológico. No. 1 (feb. 1990)-. Guayaquil: Arqueólogos Asociados (ARAS), 1990-.

452. Boletín de informaciones científicas nacionales: órgano de las Secciones Científicas de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. Vol. 1, no. 1 (mayo 1947)-. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1947-.

453. Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia. Vol. 1, no. 1/2 (jul. 1920)-. Quito: Academia Nacional de Historia, 1920-.

The frequency varies: a semiannual during most of its existence; a de facto annual since 60:129/130 (ene./dic. 1977). Suspended 1932-1935. Several years late in appearing during the 1980s and 1990s. Vols. 46 and 47 were published in two, continously paginated issues (i.e., vol. 46:103 [ene./jun. 1964] and vol. 47:104 [jul./dic. 1964]), apparently by mistake.

There are two cumulative indexes: Indice del Boletín de la Sociedad de Estudios Históricos Americanos 1918-1920 y de la Academia Nacional de Historia 1920-1949 (Quito: Academia Nacional de Historia, 1950); and Robert E. Norris, Indice del Boletín de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Históricos Americanos (1918-1920) y del Boletín de la Academia Nacional de la Historia (1920-1970) (Guayaquil: Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 1973). Norris's Indice originally appeared in: Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 2:3 (jun. 1973), 27-124; unfortunately it is not altogether reliable.

Continues: Boletín de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Históricos Americanos (item 456).

454. Boletín de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil. T. 1 (mar. 1910)-? Guayaquil: Biblioteca Municipal, 1910-?

Long since defunct. Known to have been suspended in 1918, but not for how long. An important serial inasmuch as it published many of the historical studies of Camilo Destruge, director of the Municipal Library for many years, but one whose history remains to be constructed.

455. Boletín de la Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador. Vol. 1, no. 1 (ago. 1918)-vol. 2, no. 9 (ene. 1919); nueva ser., no. 1 (oct. 1920)-no. 15 (dic. 1921); t. 1, no. 1 (dic. 1925)-v. 2, no. 12 (oct. 1927). Quito: Tall. Gráf. Nacionales, 1918-1927. 39 (?) nos.

Continued by: Mensaje de la Biblioteca Nacional (item 482).

456. Boletín de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Históricos Americanos. T. 1, no. 1 (jun. 1918)-t. 4, no. 12 (feb. 1920). Quito: Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Históricos Americanos, 1918-1920. 4 v. in 12 issues.

Reprinted in photofacsimile: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1986-1988. For indexes to this title see item 453.

Continued by: Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia (item 453).

457. Boletín del Archivo Histórico. No. 1 (sept. de 1988)-. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1988-. <2 v.>

Variant title: Boletín del Archivo Histórico del Banco Central del Ecuador. As of July 1997, only the inaugural issue and No. 2 (sept. de 1991) had appeared.

Partial contents of no. 1: Ramiro Avila Paredes, "El Archivo Histórico del Banco Central del Ecuador" (p. 7-9); Mauro Alvarez Mantilla, "La Sección Económica del Archivo Histórico" (p. 10-23); Pedro Navas Cumba, "La Sección General del Archivo Histórico" (p. 25-29); Cosme Vásquez Guzmán, "El fondo audiovisual" (p. 30-33); Honorio Granaja Azanza, "El fondo musical" (p. 34-38).

Partial contents of no. 2: Mónica Muñoz Carrasco, "El Archivo Histórico de la sucursal del Banco Central del Ecuador en Cuenca" (p. 40-43); Rocío Viteri A. "Museo Nacional de Historia de la Medicina" (p. 48-50).

458. Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia. Año 1, no. 1 (ene./jun. 1950)-. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1950-.

Entitled: ARNAHIS: órgano del Archivo Nacional de Historia. Año 11, no. 17 (1968)-año 13, no. 19 (1973).

459. Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas. T. 1, no. 1 (1930)-t. 13, no. 31/32 (1962). Guayaquil: Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 1930-1962. 32 nos. in 14 issues.

Tomo 1 (1930-1931) reprinted in photofacsimile: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1989.

460. Boletín del Museo Municipal "Remigio Crespo Toral." Año 1, no. 1 (oct. 1947)-. Cuenca: Museo Municipal "Remigio Crespo Toral," 1947-.

461. Boletín eclesiástico de la Provincia Ecuatoriana. Año 1, no. 1 (dic. 1893)-. Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1893-.

The official organ of the Archdiocese of Quito.

462. Boletín histórico: organo de la Dirección de Historia y Geografía Militares del Estado Mayor Conjunto de las FF.AA. Año 1, no. 1 (sept. 1976)-. Quito: Dirección de Historia y Geografía Militares del Estado Mayor Conjunto de las FF.AA., 1976-.

Here within cited as: Boletín histórico (Quito).

463. Casa de Montalvo: órgano de la Biblioteca de "Autores Nacionales y Extranjeros." Año 1, no. 1 (ago. 1931)-. Ambato: Biblioteca de "Autores Nacionales y Extranjeros," 1931-.

464. Corona de María: revista religiosa mensual, dirigida por PP. de la Orden de Predicadores. Año 1, no. 1 (ene. 1900)-. Quito: Impr. de Santo Domingo, 1900-.

465. Crónica del río: revista de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión," Núcleo del Guayas. No. 1 (sept./oct. 1986)-. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión," Núcleo del Guayas, 1986-.

466. Cuadernos de historia y arqueología. Año 1, no. 1 (ene. 1951)-año 31, no. 44 (ene. 1982); 2¬ época, no. 45 (1991)-. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas, 1951-1982; 1993-.

No. 45 (1991) includes chronological, onomastic, and subject indexes for the first 44 nos. (i.e., 27 issues): "Indice de Cuadernos de historia y arqueología (1951-1982)" by María Antonieta Funes, Ruth Garaicoa, and Guillermo Hurel (p. 7-92).

467. Cuadernos del Guayas: revista de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión," Núcleo del Guayas. Año. 1, no 1 (mar./abr. 1948)-. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas, 1948-.

468. Cuestiones económicas. Vol. 1 (1979)-. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1979-.

469. Cultura: revista del Banco Central del Ecuador. No. 1 (mayo/ago. 1978)- vol. 10, no. 28 (mayo/ago. 1992); segunda época, no. 1 ([abr.] 1997)-. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1978-1995, 1997-.

The most important journal in the Humanities and the Social Sciences from the late 1970's through the mid 1980s. Sporadic in appearance after 1986; only one issue appeared between 1987 and 1996: no. 28 in 1995, no. 27 not having been published. The new series appears to be aimed at a broader, less scholarly audience. The inaugural issue of the new series even featured a comic strip.

The original series included several special issues devoted to symposia and other conference proceedings: no. 3 (ene./abr. 1979): Primer encuentro sobre literatura ecuatoriana; vol. 2, no. 6 (ene./abr. 1980): Simposio sobre el Ecuador en 1830: ideología, economía y política; vol. 3, no. 9 (ene./abr. 1981): Segundo encuentro sobre literatura ecuatoriana; vol. 4, no. 15 (ene./abr. 1983): Provincia de Loja; vol. 6, no. 18a-18b (ene./abr. 1984): Coloquio de cultura ecuatoriana; vol. 7, no. 21a-21b (ene./abr. 1985): La Cultura andina en el Ecuador; vol. 8, no. 24a-24c (ene./abr. 1986): 250 años de la primera misión geodésica.

A cumulative index exists for nos. 1-18: Bruno Andrade Andrade, Cultura: revista del Banco Central del Ecuador: índices no. 1-no. 18, mayo-agosto 1978-enero-abril 1984 (Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1985; 57 p.).

470. Economía. No. 1 (1950)-. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, 1950-. Irregular.

Title varies: Boletín de información económica (1950-1953); Boletín trimestral de información económica (1953-1962); Economía y administración (1962).

Here within cited as: Economía (Quito).

471. Economía y desarrollo: revista del Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas de la PUCE. Año 1, no. 1 (mayo 1979)-. Quito: Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1979-.

472. Ecuador debate. 1 (dic. de 1982)-. Quito: Centro Andino de Acción Popular, 1983-.

Each issue is devoted to a current topic. Published three times per year.

473. Estudios y datos. Año 1, vol. 1, no. 1 (jul. 1979)-. Quito: Centro de Estudios y Datos, 1979-.

A useful source of information on economic conditions, politics and government. Published irregularly: jul. 1979-sept. 1980; monthly: mayo 1981-.

474. Hombre y ambiente. Vol. 1, no. 1 (ene./mar. 1987)-. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1987-.

475. Humanismo. No. 1 (jul./sept.1983)-. Quito: Fundación Ecuatoriana de Estudios Sociales, 1983-.

476. Humanitas: boletín ecuatoriano de antropología. 1:1 (1958)-7:1 (1969-1970). Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Instituto de Antropología, 1958-[1972?]. 11 nos. in 7 v.

477. Iglesias, pueblos y cultura. Año 1, no. 1 (1987)-. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1987-. Quarterly.

478. Libroteca: revista bibliográfica mensual. No. 1 (jun. 1991)-. Quito: Abrapalabra Editores, 1991-.

Probably defunct. As of July 1997, the latest issue appeared to have been: n║ 13 (dic. 1993 y ene./feb. 1994).

Based primarily on Freire's monthly column (see items 80-81).

479. Llacta. [Año 1, vol. 1] (1956)-. Quito: Instituto Ecuatoriano de Antropología y Geografía, 1956-.

Confusingly as well as inconsistently numbered. Usually monographic in nature and therefore more of a series than a serial. Monographic issues are described as separates in this bibliography.

480. Memoria: revista del Instituto de Historia y Antropología Andina. Año. 1, no. 1- (nov. 1990)-. Quito: MARKA, Instituto de Historia y Antropología Andina, 1990-.

Here within cited as Memoria, MARKA. As of 1997, almost true annual, five issues having appeared, and one of the most important venues for the diffusion of professionally done, original studies in Ecuadorian studies, especially in Anthropology, Archaeology, Ethnohistory, and History.

481. Memorias de la Academia Ecuatoriana correspondiente de la Española. T. 1, entrega 1 (1884)-. Quito: Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua, 1884-.

482. Mensaje de la Biblioteca Nacional. Epoca 3, no. 1 (feb.1936)-nos. 11(1940). Quito: Tall. Gráf. Nacionales, 1936-1940. 11 nos.

Continued: Boletín de la Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador (item 455).

483. Miscelánea antropológica ecuatoriana: boletín de los Museos del Banco Central del Ecuador. Año 1, no. 1 (1981)-. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1981-.

Apparently ceased publication with No. 7, corresponding to 1987.

484. Miscelánea histórica ecuatoriana: revista de investigaciones históricas de los Museos del Banco Central del Ecuador. Año 1, no. 1 (1988)-. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1988-.

Apparently ceased publication with No. 2, corresponding to 1989.

485. Museo Histórico: órgano del Museo de Historia de la Ciudad de Quito. Año 1, no. 1 (mayo 1949)-. Quito: Municipalidad de Quito, 1949-.

486. Opus: revista de la Musicoteca del Banco Central del Ecuador. 1 (jun.1986)-. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1986-.

487. Oriente dominicano: misiones de Canelos y Macas. Año 1, no. 1 (ago./sept. 1927)-. Quito: Impr. de Santo Domingo, 1927-.

488. Páginas de cultura. No. 1 (jun. de 1949)-. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Facultad de Jurisprudencia y Ciencias Sociales, 1949-.

489. Páginas de la historia, Galo Martínez Acosta (compilador). 1985(?)-. Quito: Instituto Geográfico Militar; Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia (Sección Ecuador), 1985(?)-.

490. Política y sociedad. Año no. 1 (1984)-. Quito: FLACSO; INFOC, 1984-.

491. Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia. No. 1 (II sem. 1991)-. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1991-.

As of the late 1990s, the most important journal of Ecuadorian history being published. The only journal as of the 1990s, moreover, to attempt to review recently published monographs in history and related topics systematically as well as critically. Edited by Tehis (Taller de Estudios Históricos). No. 10 (I sem. 1997) includes "Indices de contenido: números 1-10."

492. Publicaciones de la Academia Arquidiocesana de Historia Eclesiástica. No. 1 (ago. 1977)-. Guayaquil: Ediciones "Justicia y Paz," 1977-.

493. Pucará: revista de la Facultad de Filosofía, Letras y Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad de Cuenca. No. 1 (1977)-. Cuenca: Departament de Publicaciones, Facultad de Filosofía, Letras y Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad de Cuenca, 1977-.

494. Quitumbe: revista del Departamento de Historia y Geografía de la Facultad de Pedagogía de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador. Año. 1, no. 1 (jun. 1971)-. Quito: Departamento de Historia y Geografía de la Facultad de Pedagogía de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1971-.

Irregular; a total of ten issues had appeared as of July 1997. Includes articles by faculty as well as by students.

495. Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. Año 1, no. 1 (ene./mar. 1945)-no. 24 (1966). Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1945-1966. 24 nos.

Here within cited as: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana.

496. Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo de Chimborazo. Año 1, no. 1 (1953)-. Ambato: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo de Chimborazo, 1963-.

Here within cited as: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo de Chimborazo.

497. Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo de Imbabura. Vol. 1, no. 1 (ene. 1954)-[1967?]. Ibarra: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo de Imbabura, 1954-[1967?].

Here within cited as: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo de Imbabura.

Continued by: Revista del Núcleo de Imbabura de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana (item 518).

498. Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay. Año 1, no. 1 (oct. 1948). Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1948-.

Here within cited as: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay.

499. Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas. Año 1, no. 1 (nov. 1963)-. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas, 1963-.

Here within cited as: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas.

500. Revista, Instituto de Historia Eclesiástica Ecuatoriana. No. 1 (1974)-. Quito: Instituto de Historia Eclesiástica Ecuatoriana, 1974-.

Title changed to: Revista del Instituto de Historia Eclesiástica Ecuatoriana, beginning with no. 7 (1983). Nos. 1-5/6 here within cited as: Revista, Instituto de Historia Eclesiástica Ecuatoriana.

501. Revista ciencias sociales. Vol. 1, no. 1 (1977)-. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Jurisprudencia, Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, Escuela de Sociología y Ciencias Políticas, 1977-.

502. Revista de antropología (Cuenca) 1 (dic. 1969)-. Cuenca: Sección de Antropología del Núcleo del Azuay de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1969-.

No. 10 (abr. 1989) includes a cumulative: "Indice onomástico y de títulos de las Revistas de antropología del Núcleo del Azuay de la Casa de la Cultura."

503. Revista de la Sociedad de Amigos de la Genealogía. Año 1, vol. 1 (mar. 1983)-. Quito: Sociedad Amigos de la Genealogía, 1983-.

Extremely irregular. As of July 1977, only three issues had appeared. Also forms part of the "Colección SAG" (i.e., vols. 1, 2, and 5)

504. Revista de la Sociedad Jurídico Literaria. Año 1, no. 1 (mayo 1902)-. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad Central, 1902-.

505. Revista de la Universidad Católica. Año 1, no. 1 (1973)-. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1973-.

506. Revista de la Universidad de Cuenca. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, 1890-1940. No. 1 (mar. 1890)-no. 22 (abr. 1940).

Title varied: Revista científica y literaria de la Universidad del Azuay (1890-1912); Revista de la Universidad del Azuay (1916).

Continued by: Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca (item 445).

507. Revista de la Universidad de Guayaquil. Año 1 (1930)-año 14 (1943); 2¬ época, año 1, no. 1 (1958)-. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1930-.

Title varies: Anales de la Universidad de Guayaquil (1949-1956).

508. Revista del Archivo de la Biblioteca Nacional de Quito. Año 1, no. 1 (1937). Quito: Biblioteca Nacional, 1937. 1 no. (209 p.).

Continued by: Anales del Archivo Nacional de Historia y Museo Unico (item 446).

509. Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas. 1 (primer semestre 1972)-año 10, no. 19 (junio 1981). Guayaquil: Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 1972-[1990(?)].

Beginning with second issue, changed numbering to: Año 1, no. 2 (dic. 1972)-.

In addition to having been a venue for original monographic studies, mostly on various aspects of local and regional history, the RAHG constituted one of the only two sets of professionally published primary sources on the past of the port city and its district as of July 1997. The other is Actas del Cabildo colonial de Guayaquil (item 6789), also a publication of the Archivo Histórico del Guayas.

There are two cumulative indexes: "Indices de esta revista para los años de 1972-1973," 3:5 (jun. 1974), 147-181; and "Indices de las revistas 5 al 8," 5:9 (jun. 1976), 99-134.

510. Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Sección del Azuay. 1 (1979)-. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1979-.

Irregular in appearance, but as of Jul. 1997, still being published.

511. Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca. Entrega 1 (ene. 1921)-. Cuenca: Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos, 1921-.

Title varies: Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos del Azuay.

There is a cumulative index for nos. 1-47: Rodrigo Abad Gómez and Michurín Velez Valarezo, "Indice analítico de la Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos del Azuay," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 48 (1983), 13-79.

T. 1, no. 1 (ene. 1921)-t. 2, no. 8 (jul. 1923) reprinted in photofac-simile: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1989.

512. Revista del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Genealógicas y Antropológicas. Año 1, no. 1 (mar. 1981)-. Quito: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Genealógicas y Antropológicas, 1981-.

Given over almost entirely to genealogical studies.

513. Revista del folklore ecuatoriano. No. 1 (oct. 1965)-. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana [para el Instituto Ecuatoriano de Folklore], 1965-.

514. Revista del IDIS: revista del Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales de la Universidad de Cuenca (I.D.I.S.). No. 1 (1975)-. Cuenca: IDIS, 1975-.

The title varies: IDIS; Revista IDIS; Revista del I.D.I.S.

515. Revista del Instituto Azuayo de Folklore. No. 1 (ene. 1968)-. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1968-.

No. 10 (abr. 1989) includes a cumulative: "Indice onomástico y de títulos de las Revistas del Instituto Azuayo de Folklore" (p. 128-131).

516. Revista del Instituto de Historia Marítima. Año 1, no 1 (dic. 1986)-. Guayaquil: Instituto de Historia Marítima, 1986-.

Variant title: Revista, Instituto de Historia Marítima.

517. Revista del Núcleo del Cañar. No. 1 (mar. 1955)-. Azogues: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Cañar, 1953-.

518. Revista del Núcleo de Imbabura de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. T. 1, no. 1 (1968)-. Ibarra: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo de Imbabura, 1968-.

Continues: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo de Imbabura (item 497).

519. Revista ecuatoriana de educación. Vol. 1, no. 1 (jul./ago. 1947)-. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1947-.

520. Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica. Año. 1, no. 1 (primer semestre 1987)-. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1987-.

Publishes original studies and reprints articles and sources originally published in other countries. Articles originally appearing in another language are translated. Makes available materials that most Ecuadorian scholars probably would not see otherwise. Not published for 1991-1993; may have ceased publication with no. 12 (segundo semestre 1995).

521. Sarance: revista del Instituto Otavaleño de Antropología. 1 (oct. 1975)-. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleño de Antropología, 1975-.

Also numbered: Año 1, no 1-.

522. Unión literaria. Año 1, no. 1 (abr. de 1893)-ser. 8, no. 7/9 (jun. 1937). Cuenca: Unión Literaria, 1893-1938.

523. Universidad. No. 1 (1967)-. Guayaquil: Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil, 1967-.

Here within cited as: Universidad, Universidad Católica de Guayaquil.

524. Universidad-verdad: revista de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Sede en Cuenca. Año 1, no. 1 (ene./abr. 1986)-. Cuenca: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1986-.

525. Vistazo. Año 1, no. 1 (jun. 1957)-. Guayaquil: Editores Nacionales, 1957-.

A semimonthly as of the 1990s. Useful source of more or less accurate and relatively unbaised information on recent and current events.